Several species of "philosciid" Oniscidea are known from Brazil, most of them were found in the southern and eastern parts of this country. The genera Atlantoscia Ferrara & Taiti, 1981, Benthana Budde-Lund, 1908 and Balloniscus Budde-Lund, 1908, the latter considered to represent a separate family Balloniscidae Vandel, 1963, are considered the only neotropical philosciids bearing respiratory areas on their pleopods. Therefore, representatives of these genera are re-examined to shed new light on the question whether these species can be considered to be a monophylum with the autapomorphy “respiratory areas present.” The phylogeny of the above mentioned genera is discussed under morphological and biogeographical aspects. Furthermore, a remarkable new species of Atlantoscia Ferrara & Taiti, 1981, which bears pleopodal lungs in all five pairs of pleopods, is described. In regard to this character, it differs from its sister species Atlantoscia floridana (van Name, 1940). Additionally, the hitherto unknown male of Benthana convexa Lemos de Castro, 1958 will be described; it is evident that this species is different from its closest relative B. schubarti Lemos de Castro, 1958, which is also found in Brazil.