Contributions to Zoology, 80 (4) – 2011Sam Shanee; Noga Shanee: Activity budget and behavioural patterns of free-ranging yellow-tailed woolly monkeys Oreonax flavicauda (Mammalia: Primates), at La Esperanza, northeastern Peru

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Results

Annual and monthly activity budgets

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The yellow-tailed woolly monkeys at La Esperanza average 29.8% Feeding, 26.3% Resting, 29.0% Travelling, 2.3% in Social and 12.8% in Other activities (Fig. 2). Differences observed in annual activity budgets between age/sex classes were significant in all categories except travelling (Table 3). Significant differences observed in monthly activity budgets (Fig. 3) were Feeding, Resting and in Other behaviours (Table 4).

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Fig. 2. Overall activity budget for O. flavicauda at La Esperanza.

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Fig. 3. Monthly activity budget for O. flavicauda at La Esperanza.

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Fig. 4. Average diurnal activity budget for O. flavicauda at La Esperanza.

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Table 3. Activity budget for O. flavicauda for different age/sex classes.

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Table 4. Monthly time budget for Oreonax flavicauda.Diurnal time budgets

Figure 4 shows average diurnal time budgets. There is a significant difference from the expected value for resting (χ² = 42.1, df = 11, p < 0.001), with a peak around midday. There was significant difference from the expected value for feeding (χ² = 36.4, df = 11, p < 0.001), travelling (χ² = 37.7, df = 11, p < 0.001) and resting (χ² = 97.4, df = 11, p < 0.01) in adult males, with a peak in resting behaviour around midday and associated drop in feeding and travelling behaviours at the same time. Juveniles showed similar activity patterns to adult males with significantly different values from expected for feeding (χ² = 42.7, df = 11, p < 0.001), resting (χ² = 23.2, df = 11, p < 0.05) and travelling (χ² = 39.3, df = 11, p < 0.001). Adult female behaviour differed significantly from expected values in travelling (χ² = 40.1, df = 11, p < 0.001) and resting (χ² = 46.9, df = 11, p < 0.001), however no significant difference in feeding was found. Adult females with infants showed a significant difference from expected values in feeding (χ² = 35.6, df = 11, p < 0.001), Travelling (χ² = 37.36, df = 11, p < 0.001) and Resting (χ² = 57.6, df = 11, p < 0.001) with a decrease in feeding and travelling and associated increase in resting around midday.

Social and other behaviours

No significant differences were found in activity budgets for Social and Other Behaviours between age/sex classes or between months. Although juveniles were seen to engage in Play more than other age/sex classes this fell short of statistical significance (χ² = 6.65, df = 3, p = 0.08). Adult males and adult females with infants were observed vocalizing more often than the other age/sex classes. Adult males displayed more aggressive behaviours. Sexual behaviours were very rarely observed; we only recorded this behaviour on two occasions, both in January.