Contributions to Zoology, 77 (4) - 2008Ellard R. Hunting; Rob W.M. van Soest; Harm G. van der Geest; Anne Vos; Adolphe O. Debrot: Diversity and spatial heterogeneity of mangrove associated sponges of Curaçao and Aruba
Material and methods

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Vertical zonation

Depth of occurrence of sponge individuals was recorded in order to investigate the zonal distribution of sponge species. Zonation patterns were recorded as frequency of occurrence of all species present at depth intervals of 5 cm. Competition-related factors (i.e., overgrowth and allelopathy) may influence the local distribution of species and hence may interfere with other variables (e.g., light availability, grazing pressure) that might otherwise determine spatial patterns. In an attempt to exclude these competition-related factors, an additional assessment was performed in which sponge-species were recorded that either monopolized a root with considerable cover or dominated with at least 60% of the total sponge cover.