Contributions to Zoology, 86 (1) – 2017R.G. Bina Perl; Sarig Gafny; Yoram Malka; Sharon Renan; Douglas C. Woodhams; Louise Rollins-Smith; James D. Pask; Molly C. Bletz; Eli Geffen; Miguel Vences: Natural history and conservation of the rediscovered Hula painted frog, Latonia nigriventer
Appendix

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Appendix 1 - Morphological description of adult specimens of Latonia nigriventer

Body width about two times head width. Head flattened and about as long as wide with a projecting snout that appears rounded in dorsal as well as lateral view. Nostrils positioned dorsally and closer to the tip of the snout than to the eyes. Eyes protruding, with heart-shaped pupil and golden iris. A distinct transversal fold present in the neck (absent from species of Discoglossus, the sister genus of Latonia), varying in depth depending on the posture. In a bent-forward posture with stretched dorsal skin the fold merely discernible as a slight groove. Tympanic membrane indistinct and comparatively small. Forearms robust and muscular with four fingers. Fingers free with rounded or pointed tips (order of length: 1 < 4 < 2 < 3). Hind limbs muscular with five toes (order of length: 1 < 2 < 5 < 3 < 4). Metatarsalia largely separated by webbing. Webbing formula difficult to assess as subarticular tubercles absent: 1(1), 2(1), 3(1), 4(1), 5(1), with webbing starting more or less inconspicuous as dermal ridges. Snout-vent length (SVL; mean value (range)): ♀♀ 94.8 mm (69.0–128.4 mm; N = 64), ♂♂ 98.0 mm (66.6–121.4 mm; N = 44). Skin smooth with numerous small round tubercles on dorsal and ventral surfaces as well as limbs, but no distinct rows of tubercles. Tubercles on limbs closer to each other and less rounded, resulting in a rougher surface.

Colouration in life: Dorsally with ochre, brownish or auburn background colour and dark brown or olive-grey colour patches on head and dorsum; rarely with rusty coloured flecks. Characteristic dark V-shaped pattern on head with broad end positioned between eyes and posteriorly narrowing up to level of arms present in all L. nigriventer individuals. Likewise characteristic lateral stripes at head mostly starting posterior (sometimes anterior) of eyes and extending up to level of arms. Dark patterns often to some degree rimmed by a light beige line. Almost all individuals with an incomplete middorsal band of the background colour in the posterior part of the dorsum. No distinctly ocellated pattern, nor prominent middorsal band extending over the whole dorsum as present in the two colour morphs displayed by both, Discoglossus galganoi and D. pictus (Vences, 2012a, b), in any L. nigriventer individual examined. Ventrally, greyish-black with numerous characteristic white dots corresponding to raised tubercles and distributed more or less evenly across all ventral surfaces including arms, legs and plantar surfaces. In small juveniles (SVL 20–30 mm), white spots not raised as in adults. Border between ventral and dorsal pattern mostly gradually and rather inconspicuous; in some individuals colour transition associated with marbling in different hues of ochre, brown and grey that might include arms and legs. Femur and tibia often with more or less conspicuous dark crossbands. Single individuals almost without dorsal pattern and rather uniform. Ventral side sometimes rather light grey with inconspicuous white tubercles. Individuals found within deep leaf litter during winter months often displayed such a rather pale colouration.