Materials and methods
Sketch map of the areas in Sarawak and Brunei indicating key localities with fossil material discussed in this paper.
Key localities (see map below) in NW Borneo from which samples are available:
- Kampung Tengah turnoff outcrops C and D (Bungai-Bekenu road km 4.6 measured from Bungai beach side) near Bekenu, 36 km S of Miri, Sarawak, Malaysia. The fossiliferous bed is a hardground in the Setap shale, Sibuti Formation (Early Miocene).
- Auban coastal cliffs, 34 km SW of Miri, Sarawak, Malaysia. Individual outcrops are recorded in kilometers distance from Sungei Auban. Fossils collected from silts in the Lower Miri Formation (Middle-Late Miocene).
- Miri-Bekenu road, SW of Miri, Sarawak, Malaysia. Individual outcrops are recorded in kilometers distance from the clock tower roundabout in Miri towncentre, the Kampung Beraya junction being at km 26.9). Fossils collected from silts in the Lower Miri Formation (Middle-Late Miocene).
- The Seria oil field in Brunei – material is limited to small specimens collected from wells drilled in the early 1930’s. Seria Formation (Late Miocene).
- Coastal outcrops NE of Tutong in Brunei. Miri, Seria and Liang Formations (Middle Miocene to Pliocene). Most sampling was done by geologists from the Bataafsche Petroleum Maatschappij (now Royal Dutch Shell) in the 1920s and 1930s. The material was studied in the 1920s to 1940s by K. Martin and C. Beets at the Geological Museum (now the National Museum of Natural History), Leiden.
- 300 m SE of Canada Hill, Miri, Sarawak, Malaysia. Temporary outcrop of tidal flat and coral reef deposits (Holocene, deposited about 6000 years before present).
- Sungei Boang, 250 m WNW of the public pool in Miri, Sarawak, Malyasia. Temporary outcrop of upper shoreface deposits (Holocene, deposited about 5000 years before present).