Contributions to Zoology, 86 (4) – 2017Menno Schilthuizen; Rob Langelaan; Nicola Hemmings; Wesley van Oostenbrugge; Stefan Visser: An unexpected twist: Sperm cells coil to the right in land snails and to the left in song birds
Materials and Methods

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Birds: materials

We used Passeriformes sperm samples that had been preserved in 5% formalin at the Department of Animal and Plant Sciences, University of Sheffield. These samples had been obtained for previous studies, using a range of techniques (as detailed in Birkhead et al., 1993; Immler and Birkhead, 2005, 2007). First, samples were cooled at 5°C overnight. Then, 10 µl of the pellet of the sample was placed directly on SEM stubs and air-dried for scanning electron microscopy.