Contributions to Zoology, 86 (4) – 2017Samuel G. Penny; Angelica Crottini; Franco Andreone; Adriana Bellati; Lovasoa M.S. Rakotozafy; Marc W. Holderied; Christoph Schwitzer; Gonçalo M. Rosa: Combining old and new evidence to increase the known biodiversity value of the Sahamalaza Peninsula, Northwest Madagascar

To refer to this article use this url: http://contributionstozoology.nl/vol86/nr04/a02

References

AmphibiaWeb. 2017. <https://amphibiaweb.org> University of California, Berkeley, CA, USA. Accessed 22 Nov 2017.

Andreone F, Cadle JE, Cox N, Nussbaum RA, Raxworthy CJ, Stuart SN, Vallan D, Vences M. 2005. Species review of amphibian extinction risks in Madagascar: conclusions from the Global Amphibian Assessment. Conservation Biology 19: 1790-1802.

Andreone F, Carpenter AI, Copsey J, Crottini A, Garcia, G, Jenkins RKB, Köhler J, Rabibisoa NHC, Randriamahazo H, Raxworthy CJ. 2012. Saving the diverse Malagasy amphibian fauna: Where are we four years after implementation of the Sahonagasy Action Plan? Alytes 29: 44-58.

Andreone F, Rabibisoa N, Randrianantoandro C, Crottini A, Edmonds D, Kraus F, Lewis JP, Moore M, Rabemananjara FCE, Rabemanantsoa JC, Vences M. 2014. Madagascar: Risk review is under way for invasive toad. Nature 512: 253-253.

Andreone F, Rosa GM, Noël J, Crottini A, Vences M, Raxworthy CJ. 2010. Living within fallen palm leaves: the discovery of an unknown Blommersia (Mantellidae: Anura) reveals a new reproductive strategy in the amphibians of Madagascar. Naturwissenschaften 97: 525-543.

Andreone F, Vences M, Randrianirina JE. 2001. Patterns of amphibian and reptile diversity at Berara Forest (Sahamalaza Peninsula), NW Madagascar. Italian Journal of Zoology 68: 235-241.

Arévalo E, Davis SK, Sites J. 1994. Mitochondrial DNA sequence divergence and phylogenetic relationships among eight chromosome races of the Sceloporus grammicus complex (Phrynosomatidae) in Central Mexico. Systematic Biology 43: 387-418.

Bauer AM, Glaw F, Gehring PS, Vences M. 2011. New species of Blaesodactylus (Squamata: Gekkonidae) from Ankarafantsika National Park in north-western Madagascar. Zootaxa 2942: 57-68.

Birkinshaw CR. 2004. Priority areas for plant conservation. Ravintsara 2: 14-15.

Bletz MC, Rosa GM, Andreone F, Courtois EA, Schmeller DS, Rabibisoa NH, Rabemananjara FCE, Raharivololoniaina L, Vences M, Weldon C, Edmonds D, Raxworthy CJ, Harris RN, Fisher MC, Crottini A. 2015a. Widespread presence of the pathogenic fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis in wild amphibian communities in Madagascar. Scientific Reports 5: 8633.

Bletz MC, Rosa GM, Andreone F, Courtois EA, Schmeller DS, Rabibisoa NH, Rabemananjara FCE, Raharivololoniaina L, Vences M, Weldon C, Edmonds D, Raxworthy CJ, Harris RN, Fisher MC, Crottini A. 2015b. Consistency of published results on the pathogen Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis in Madagascar: Formal comment on Kolby et al. Rapid Response to Evaluate the Presence of Amphibian Chytrid Fungus (Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis) and Ranavirus in Wild Amphibian Populations in Madagascar PLoS ONE 10: e0135900.

Böhm M, Collen B, Baillie JEM, Bowles P, Chanson J, Cox N, et al. 2013. The conservation status of the world’s reptiles. Biological Conservation 157: 372-385.

Bora P, Ramilijaona O, Raminosoa N, Vences M. 2011. A new species of Mantidactylus (subgenus Chonomantis) from Ranomafana National Park, eastern Madagascar (Amphibia, Anura, Mantellidae). Zootaxa 2772: 52-60.

Bora P, Randrianantoandro JC, Randrianavelona R, Hantalalaina EF, Andriantsimanarilafy RR, Rakotondravony D, Ramilijaona OR, Vences M, Jenkins RK, Glaw F, Koehler J. 2010. Amphibians and reptiles of the Tsingy de Bemaraha Plateau, Western Madagascar: Checklist, biogeography and conservation. Herpetological Conservation and Biology 5: 111-125.

Boycott RC, Bourquin O. 2008. Pelomedusa subrufa (Lacépède 1788) - helmeted turtle, helmeted terrapin. In: Rhodin AGJ, Pritchard PCH, van Dijk PP, Saumure RA, Buhlmann KA, Iverson JB, eds. Conservation Biology of Freshwater Turtles and Tortoises: a compilation project of the IUCN/SSC Tortoise and Freshwater Turtle Specialist Group. Chelonian Research Monographs 5: 007.1-007.6.

Brown JL, Sillero N, Glaw F, Bora P, Vieites DR, Vences M. 2016. Spatial biodiversity patterns of Madagascar’s amphibians and reptiles. PLoS ONE 11: e0144076.

Bruford MW, Hanotte O, Brookfield JFY, Burke T. 1992. Single-locus and multilocus DNA fingerprinting: Oxford: IRL Press.

Crottini A, Andreone F, Edmonds, D, Hansen C M, Lewis JP, Rabemanantsoa JC, Moore M, Kraus F, Vences M, Rabemananjara FCE, Randrianantoandro C. 2014. A new challenge for amphibian conservation in Madagascar: the invasion of Duttaphrynus melanostictus in Toamasina province. FrogLog 111: 46-47.

Crottini A, Harris DJ, Miralles A, Glaw F, Jenkins RK, Randrianantoandro JC, Bauer AM, Vences M. 2015. Morphology and molecules reveal two new species of the poorly studied gecko genus Paragehyra (Squamata: Gekkonidae) from Madagascar. Organisms Diversity & Evolution 15: 175-98.

Crottini A, Gehring P-S, Glaw F, Harris DJ, Lima A, Vences M. 2011. Deciphering the cryptic species diversity of dull-coloured day geckos Phelsuma (Squamata: Gekkonidae) from Madagascar, with description of a new species. Zootaxa 2982: 40-48.

Crottini A, Madsen O, Poux C, Strauß A, Vieites DR, Vences M. 2012. Vertebrate time-tree elucidates the biogeographic pattern of a major biotic change around the K–T boundary in Madagascar. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 109: 5358-5363.

D’Cruze NC, Green KE, Robinson JE, Gardner CJ. 2006. A rapid assessment of the amphibians and reptiles of an unprotected area of dry deciduous forest in north Madagascar. Herpetological Bulletin 96: 17-25.

Elmqvist T, Pyykönen M, Tengö M, Rakotondrasoa F, Rabakonandrianina E, Radimilahy C. 2007. Patterns of loss and regeneration of tropical dry forest in Madagascar: the social institutional context. PLoS ONE 2: e402.

Florio A, Ingram C, Rakotondravony H, Louis E, Raxworthy C. 2012. Detecting cryptic speciation in the widespread and morphologically conservative carpet chameleon (Furcifer lateralis) of Madagascar. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 25: 1399-1414.

Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO). 2015. Global forest resources assessment. Main report. Rome: FAO.

Fouquet A, Gilles A, Vences M, Marty C, Blanc M, Gemmell NJ. 2007. Underestimation of species richness in Neotropical frogs revealed by mtDNA analyses. PLoS ONE, 2: e1109.

Gehring P-S, Ratsoavina FM, Vences M, Glaw F. 2011. Calumma vohibola, a new chameleon species (Squamata: Chamaeleonidae) from the littoral forests of eastern Madagascar. African Journal of Herpetology 60: 130-154.

Gerlach J, Ineich I, Vences M. 2011. Phelsuma laticauda. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species e.T61433A12483895 http://dx.doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2011-2.RLTS.T61433A12483895.en

Glaw F, Vences M. 2007. A field guide to the amphibians and reptiles of Madagascar. Third edition. Cologne: Vences & Glaw Verlag.

Glaw F, Köhler J, Townsend TM, Vences M. 2012. Rivalling the world’s smallest reptiles: discovery of miniaturized and microendemic new species of leaf chameleons (Brookesia) from northern Madagascar. PLoS ONE 7: e31314.

Glaw F, Koehler J, de la Riva I, Vieites D, Vences M. 2010. Integrative taxonomy of Malagasy treefrogs: combination of molecular genetics, bioacoustics and comparative morphology reveals twelve additional species of Boophis. Zootaxa 2383: 1-82.

Glaw F, Kucharzewski C, Nagy ZT, Hawlitschek O, Vences, M. 2014. New insights into the systematics and molecular phylogeny of the Malagasy snake genus Liopholidophis suggest at least one rapid reversal of extreme sexual dimorphism in tail length. Organisms Diversity & Evolution 14: 121-132.

Glaw F, Rakotondrazafy NA, Rabibisoa N, Ratsoavina F. 2011. Phelsuma kochi. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species e.T193491A8863846. http://dx.doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2011-2.RLTS.T193491A8863846.en

Glos J, Dausmann KH, Linsenmair KE. 2008. Modelling the habitat use of Aglyptodactylus laticeps, an endangered dry-forest frog from Western Madagascar. In: Andreone F, ed. A Conservation Strategy for the Amphibians of Madagascar. Monografie del Museo Regionale di Scienze Naturali di Torino, XLV, Museo Regionale di Scienze Naturali, Turin, 45: 125-42.

Hall TA. 1999. BioEdit: A user-friendly biological sequence alignment editor and analysis program for Windows 95/98/NT. Nucleic Acids Symposium Series 41: 95-98.

Hawlitschek O, Toussaint EFA, Gehring P-S, Ratsoavina FM, Cole N, Crottini A, Nopper J, Lam AW, Vences M, Glaw F. 2017. Gecko phylogeography in the Western Indian Ocean region: The oldest clade of Ebenavia inunguis lives on the youngest island. Journal of Biogeography 44: 409-420.

Heinermann J, Rodríguez A, Segev O, Edmonds D, Dolch R, Vences M. 2015. Year-round activity patterns in a hyperdiverse community of rainforest amphibians in Madagascar. Journal of Natural History 49: 2213-2231.

Huey RB, Deutsch CA, Tewksbury JJ, Vitt LJ, Hertz PE, Pérez HJÁ, Garland T. 2009. Why tropical forest lizards are vulnerable to climate warming. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B: Biological Sciences 276: 1939-1948.

Ikeuchi I, Mori A. 2014. Natural history of a Madagascan gecko Blaesodactylus ambonihazo in a dry deciduous forest. Current Herpetology 33:161-170.

Ineich I, Glaw F, Vences M. 2016. A new species of Blaesodactylus (Squamata: Gekkonidae) from Tsingy limestone outcrops in Namoroka National Park, north-western Madagascar. Zootaxa 4109: 523-541.

Iverson J. 1992. A revised checklist with distribution maps ofthe turtles ofthe World. Richmond, IN: Privately published.

Irwin MT, Wright PC, Birkinshaw C, Fisher BL, Gardner CJ, Glos J, Goodman SM, Loiselle P, Rabeson P, Raharison J-L. 2010. Patterns of species change in anthropogenically disturbed forests of Madagascar. Biological Conservation 143: 2351-2362.

Janzen DH. 1988. Tropical dry forests. The most endangered major tropical ecosystem (Vol. 3). Washington DC: National Academy Press.

Jenkins RK, Tognelli MF, Bowles P, Cox N, Brown JL, Chan L, Andreone F, Andriamazava A, Andriantsimanarilafy RR, Anjeriniaina M, Bora P. 2014. Extinction risks and the conservation of Madagascar’s reptiles. PLoS ONE 9: e100173.

Jono T, Bauer AM, Brennan I, Mori A. 2015. New species of Blaesodactylus (Squamata: Gekkonidae) from Tsingy karstic outcrops in Ankarana National Park, northern Madagascar. Zootaxa 3980: 406-416.

Kolby JE. 2014. Ecology: Stop Madagascar’s toad invasion now. Nature 509: 563-563.

Kolby JE, Smith KM, Ramirez SD, Rabemananjara F, Pessier AP, Brunner JL, Goldberg CS, Berger L, Skerratt LF. 2015. Rapid response to evaluate the presence of amphibian chytrid fungus (Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis) and Ranavirus in wild amphibian populations in Madagascar. PLoS ONE 10: e0125330.

Köhler J, Glaw F, Pabijan M, Vences, M. 2015. Integrative taxonomic revision of mantellid frogs of the genus Aglyptodactylus (Anura: Mantellidae). Zootaxa 4006: 401-438.

Leaché AD, Reeder TW. 2002. Molecular systematics of the eastern fence lizard (Sceloporus undulatus): a comparison of parsimony, likelihood, and Bayesian approaches. Systematics Biology 51: 44-68.

Lehtinen RM, Glaw F, Vences M. 2011. Two new plant-breeding frog species (Anura: Mantellidae, Guibemantis) from southeastern Madagascar. Herpetological Journal 21: 95-112.

Macey JR, Larson A, Ananjeva NB, Fang Z, Papenfuss TJ. 1997. Two novel gene orders and the role of light-strand replication in rearrangement of the vertebrate mitochondrial genome. Molecular Biology and Evolution 14: 91-104.

Macey JR, Schulte II JA, Larson A, Ananjeva NB, Wang Y, Pethiyagoda R, Rastegar-Pouyani N, Papenfuss TJ. 2000. Evaluating trans-Tethys migration: an example using acrodont lizard phylogenetics. Systematic Biology 49: 233-256.

Mercurio V, Aprea G, Crottini A, Mattioli F, Randrianirina JE, Razafindrabe TJ, Andreone, F. 2008. The amphibians of Isalo Massif, southern-central Madagascar: high frog diversity in an apparently hostile dry habitat. In: Andreone F, ed. A Conservation Strategy for the Amphibians of Madagascar. Monografie del Museo Regionale di Scienze Naturali di Torino, XLV, Museo Regionale di Scienze Naturali, Turin, 45: 143-196.

Meyer CP, Geller JB, Paulay G. 2005. Fine scale endemism on coral reefs: Archipelagic differentiation in turbinid gastropods. Evolution 59: 113-125.

Miralles A, Glaw F, Ratsoavina FM, Vences M. 2015. A likely microendemic new species of terrestrial iguana, genus Chalarodon, from Madagascar. Zootaxa 3946: 201-220.

Miralles A, Koehler J, Glaw F, Vences M. 2011. A molecular phylogeny of the “Madascincus polleni species complex”, with description of a new species of scincid lizard from the coastal dune area of northern Madagascar. Zootaxa 2876: 1-16.

Miralles A, Jono T, Mori A, Gandola R, Erens J, Köhler J, Glaw F, Vences M. 2016. A new perspective on the reduction of cephalic scales in fossorial legless skinks (Squamata, Scincidae). Zoologica Scripta 45: 380-393.

Monastersky R. 2014. Biodiversity: Life—a status report. Nature 516: 158-161.

Mori A, Ikeuchi I, Hasegawa M. 2006. Herpetofauna of Ampijoroa, Ankarafantsika strict nature reserve, a dry forest in northwestern Madagascar. Herpetological Natural History 10: 31-60.

Nagy ZT, Sonet G, Glaw F, Vences, M. 2012. First large-scale DNA barcoding assessment of reptiles in the biodiversity hotspot of Madagascar, based on newly designed COI primers. PLoS ONE 7: e34506.

Palumbi S, Martin A, Romano S, McMillan WO, Stice L, Grabowski G. 1991. The simple fool’s guide to PCR. Honolulu: Department of Zoology.

Penny SG, Andreone F, Crottini A, Holderied MW, Rakotozafy LS, Schwitzer C, Rosa, GM. 2014. A new species of the Boophis rappiodes group (Anura, Mantellidae) from the Sahamalaza Peninsula, northwest Madagascar, with acoustic monitoring of its nocturnal calling activity. ZooKeys 435: 111-132.

Penny SG, Andreone F, Crottini A, Holderied MW, Rosa G, Schwitzer C. 2016. The amphibians of the Sahamalaza Peninsula, northwest Madagascar – actions for their conservation. Bristol, UK: Bristol Zoological Society.

Perl RB, Nagy ZT, Sonet G, Glaw F, Wollenberg KC, Vences M. 2014. DNA barcoding Madagascar’s amphibian fauna. Amphibia-Reptilia 35: 197-206.

Petzold A, Vargas-Ramirez M, Kehlmaier C, Vamberger M, Branch WR, Du Preez L, Hofmeyr MD, Meyer L, Schleicher A, Široký P, Fritz U. 2014. A revision of African helmeted terrapins (Testudines: Pelomedusidae: Pelomedusa), with descriptions of six new species. Zootaxa 3795:523-548.

Pons P, Rakotobearison G, Wendenburg C. 2003. Immediate effects of a fire on birds and vegetation at Ankarafantsika Strict Nature Reserve, NW Madagascar. Ostrich-Journal of African Ornithology 74: 146-148.

Rakotoarison A, Crottini A, Mueller J, Roedel M-O, Glaw F, Vences, M. 2015. Revision and phylogeny of narrow-mouthed treefrogs (Cophyla) from northern Madagascar: integration of molecular, osteological, and bioacoustic data reveals three new species. Zootaxa 3937: 61-89.

Rakotoarison A, Scherz MD, Glaw F, Köhler J, Andreone F, Franzen M, Glos J, Hawlitschek O, Jono T, Mori A, Ndriantsoa SH, Rasoamampionona Raminosoa N, Riemann JC, Rödel M-O, Rosa GM, Vieites DR, Crottini A, Vences M. 2017. Describing the smaller majority: Integrative taxonomy reveals twenty-six new species of tiny microhylid frogs (genus Stumpffia) from Madagascar. Vertebrate Zoology 67(3): 271-398.

Randrianantoandro JC, Raxworthy CJ, Ratsoavina F, Glaw F, Rabibisoa N. 2011. Phelsuma vanheygeni. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species eT172776A6915653 http://dx.doi.org/10.2305/IUCNUK2011-2RLTST172776A6915653en

Raselimanana AP. 2003. Gerrhosauridae, plated lizards. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press.

Raselimanana AP. 2008. Herpétofaune des forêts sèches malgaches. Malagasy Nature 1: 46-75.

Raselimanana AP, Nussbaum RA, Raxworthy CJ. 2006. Observations and re-description of Zonosaurus boettgeri Steindachner 1891 and description of a second new species of long-tailed Zonosaurus from western Madagascar. Occasional papers of the Museum of Zoology, University of Michigan 739: 1-16.

Raselimanana AP, Raxworthy CJ, Nussbaum RA. 2000. A revision of dwarf Zonosaurus Boulenger (Reptilia: Squamata: Cordylidae) from Madagascar, including descriptions of three new species. Scientific Papers, Natural History Museum, University of Kansas: 1-16.

Raselimanana AP, Raxworthy CJ, Andreone F, Glaw F, Vences M. 2014. An enigmatic new Scaphiophryne toadlet from the rainforests of north-eastern Madagascar (Amphibia: Microhylidae). Vertebrate Zoology 64: 95-102.

Ratsoavina FM, Louis Jr EE, Crottini A, Randrianiaina RD, Glaw F, Vences M. 2011. A new leaf tailed gecko species from northern Madagascar with a preliminary assessment of molecular and morphological variability in the Uroplatus ebenaui group. Zootaxa 3022: 39-57.

Raxworthy CJ, Pearson, RG Rabibisoa N, Rakotondrazafy AM, Ramanamanjato JB, Raselimanana AP, Wu S, Nussbaum RA, Stone DA. 2008. Extinction vulnerability of tropical montane endemism from warming and upslope displacement: a preliminary appraisal for the highest massif in Madagascar. Global Change Biology 14: 1703-1720.

Riemann JC, Ndriantsoa, SH Raminosoa NR, Rödel MO, Glos J. 2015. The value of forest fragments for maintaining amphibian diversity in Madagascar. Biological Conservation 191: 707-715.

International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature. 1999. International Code of Zoological Nomenclature, fourth edition. Ride WDL, Cogger HG, Dupuis C, Kraus O, Minelli A, Thompson FC, Tubbs PK (eds.). Adopted by the International Union of Biological Sciences. London: International Trust for Zoological Nomenclature.

Roelants K, Gower DJ, Wilkinson M, Loader SP, Biju SD, Guillaume K, Moriau L, Bossuyt F. 2007. Global patterns of diversification in the history of modern amphibians. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 104: 887-892.

Rosa GM, Andreone F, Crottini A, Hauswaldt JS, Noël J, Rabibisoa NH, Randriambahiniarime MO, Rebelo R, Raxworthy CJ. 2012. The amphibians of the relict Betampona low-elevation rainforest, eastern Madagascar: an application of the integrative taxonomy approach to biodiversity assessments. Biodiversity and Conservation 21: 1531-1559.

Rosa GM, Márquez R, Andreone F. 2011. The astonishing calls of the frogs of Betampona [audio CD & booklet]. Turin: Museo Regionale di Scienze Naturali di Torino.

Rosa GM, Crottini A, Noël J, Rabibisoa N, Raxworthy CJ, Andreone F. 2014. A new phytotelmic species of Platypelis (Microhylidae: Cophylinae) from the Betampona Reserve, eastern Madagascar. Salamandra 50: 201-214.

Samonds KE, Godfrey LR, Ali JR, Goodman SM, Vences M, Sutherland MR, Irwin MT, Krause DW. 2012. Spatial and temporal arrival patterns of Madagascar’s vertebrate fauna explained by distance, ocean currents, and ancestor type. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 109: 5352-5357.

Scherz MD, Glaw F, Vences M, Andreone F, Crottini A. 2016. Two new species of terrestrial microhylid frogs (Microhylidae: Cophylinae: Rhombophryne) from northeastern Madagascar. Salamandra 52(2): 91-106.

Schmitz A, Brandley MC, Mausfeld P, Vences M, Glaw F, Nussbaum RA, Reeder TW. 2005. Opening the black box: phylogenetics and morphological evolution of the Malagasy fossorial lizards of the subfamily “Scincinae”. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 34: 118-133.

Schuurman D, Andreone F. 2010. Rampant logging, illegal collection and slash and burn agriculture driving Madagascar’s rare frogs towards extinction. Wildlife Extra, 15 December 2010 (available from http://www.wildlifeextra.com/go/news/madagascar-frogs.html#cr)

Schwitzer C, Schwitzer N, Randriatahina GH, Rabarivola C, Kaumanns W. 2006. “Programme Sahamalaza”: New perspectives for the in situ and ex situ study and conservation of the blue-eyed black lemur (Eulemur macaco flavifrons) in a fragmented habitat. Proceedings of the German-Malagasy Research Cooperation in Life and Earth Sciences 11: 135-149.

Schwitzer N, Randriatahina GH, Kaumanns W, Hoffmeister D, Schwitzer C. 2007. Habitat utilization of blue-eyed black lemurs, Eulemur macaco flavifrons (Gray, 1867), in primary and altered forest fragments. Primate Conservation 22: 79-87.

Schwitzer C, Mittermeier RA, Johnson SE, Donati G, Irwin M, Peacock H, Ratsimbazafy J, Razafindramanana J, Louis E, Chikhi L, Colquhoun IC, Tinsman J, Dolch R, LaFleur M, Nash S, Patel E, Randrianambinina B, Rasolofoharivelo T, Wright PC. 2014. Averting lemur extinctions amid Madagascar’s political crisis. Science 343: 842-843.

Seiler M, Randriatahina GH, Schwitzer C. 2012. The rapid boost of forest destruction and poaching of lemurs inside the Sahamalaza - Îles Radama National Park. Lemur News 16: 28-30.

Sinervo B, Mendez-De-La-Cruz F, Miles DB, Heulin B, Bastiaans E, Villagrán-Santa Cruz M, Lara-Resendiz R, Martínez-Méndez N, Calderón-Espinosa ML, Meza-Lázaro RN, Gadsden H. 2010. Erosion of lizard diversity by climate change and altered thermal niches. Science 328: 894-899.

Sodhi NS, Bickford D, Diesmos AC, Lee TM, Koh LP, Brook BW, Sekercioglu CH, Bradshaw CJ. 2008. Measuring the meltdown: drivers of global amphibian extinction and decline. PLoS ONE 3: pe1636.

Smith AP. 1997. Deforestation, fragmentation, and reserve design in western Madagascar. In: Lawrence WF, Bierregaard Jr RO, eds. Tropical forest remnants: Ecology, management, and conservation of fragmented communities. Chicago, IL: The University of Chicago Press: 415-441.

Stuart SN, Chanson JS, Cox NA, Young BE, Rodrigues ASL, Fischman DL, Waller RW. 2004. Status and trends of amphibian declines and extinctions worldwide. Science 306: 1783-1786.

Sussman RW, Rakotozafy A. 1994. Plant diversity and structural analysis of a tropical dry forest in southwestern Madagascar. Biotropica 26(3): 241-254.

Vences M, Andreone F, Glaw, F. 2005b. A new microhylid frog of the genus Cophyla from a transitional forest in northwestern Madagascar. African Zoology 40: 143-149.

Vences M, Glaw F, Márquez R. 2006. The calls of the frogs of Madagascar. 3 Audio CDs and Booklet. Barcelona: Alosa Fonozoo.

Vences M, Andreone F, Glos J, Glaw F. 2010b. Molecular and bioacoustic differentiation of Boophis occidentalis with description of a new treefrog from north-western Madagascar. Zootaxa 2544: 54-68.

Vences M, Glaw F, Köhler J, Wollenberg KC. 2010a. Molecular phylogeny, morphology and bioacoustics reveal five additional species of arboreal microhylid frogs of the genus Anodonthyla from Madagascar. Contributions to Zoology 79: 1-32.

Vences M, Thomas M, Bonett RM, Vieites DR. 2005a. Deciphering amphibian diversity through DNA barcoding: chances and challenges. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences 360: 1859-1868.

Vences M, Brown JL, Lathrop A, Rosa GM, Cameron A, Crottini A, Dolch R, Edmonds D, Freeman K, Glaw F, Grismer LL, Litvinchuk S, Milne M, Moore M, Solofo JF, Noël J, Nguyen TQ, Ohler A, Randrianantoandro C, Raselimanana AP, Van Leeuwen P, Wogan GOU, Ziegler T, Andreone F, Murphy RW. 2017. Tracing a toad invasion: Lack of ­mitochondrial DNA variation, haplotype origins, and potential distribution of introduced Duttaphrynus melanostictus in Madagascar. Amphibia-Reptilia 38: 197-207.

Vences M, Köhler J, Pabijan M, Bletz M, Gehring PS, Hawlitschek O, Rakotoarison A, Ratsoavina FM, Andreone F, Crottini A, Glaw F. 2017. Taxonomy and geographic distribution of Malagasy frogs of the Gephyromantis asper clade, with description of a new subgenus and revalidation of Gephyromantis ceratophrys. Salamandra 53: 77-98.

Vieites DR, Wollenberg KC, Andreone F, Köhler J, Glaw F, Vences M. 2009. Vast underestimation of Madagascar’s biodiversity evidenced by an integrative amphibian inventory. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 106: 8267-8272.

Volampeno, MSN. 2009. Reproductive behaviour and habitat use in the blue-eyed black lemur (Eulemur flavifrons, Gray, 1867) at the Sahamalaza Peninsula, National Park Madagascar. (PhD thesis), University of KwaZulu–Natal, Pietermaritzburg.

Volampeno MSN, Masters JC, Downs CT. 2011. Life history traits, maternal behavior and infant development of blue-eyed black lemurs (Eulemur flavifrons). American Journal of Primatology 73: 474-484.

Walls SC, Barichivich WJ, Brown ME. 2013. Drought, deluge and declines: the impact of precipitation extremes on amphibians in a changing climate. Biology 2: 399-418.