We want to extend special thanks to Prof. dr Gerhard Scholtz for his encouragement in this work and his making possible the exchange visits of FK to the University of Amsterdam, and FRS and SK to Humboldt University. Additional thanks should go to Sven Lange and two anonymous reviewers for improving the manuscript, and Jan van Arkel for help with the figures. Dirk Platvoet assisted with Scanning Electron Microscopy, and Xu Sen took some additional SEMs of spelaeogriphaceans and amphipods. Special thanks go to Dr Mark Grygier, Lake Biwa Museum, Japan, for translating the article by Rodion Makarov from the original Russian. The project was supported by the European Union, SOCRATES Exchange Program, to the Humboldt University, Berlin and the University of Amsterdam.