Lycopodina lycopodium (Levinsen, 1887) (Fig. 10a-f)next section
Fig. 10. Lycopodina lycopodium (Levinsen, 1887), a habitus of ZMA Por. 01002, a1 habitus of ZMA Por. 15309 (scale bar 1 cm); b-f SEM images of spicules of ZMA Por. 01002; b longest style, b1 details of apices and middle of longest style; c shorter style, c1 details of apices and middle of shorter style; d microstyle; e anisochela; f forceps.
Esperella cupressiformis var. lycopodium Levinsen, 1887: 365, pl. 29 s 12-13, pl. 31 s 15, 16d.
Asbestopluma (Lycopodina) lycopodium; Lundbeck, 1905: 62, pl. 2 s 15-17, pl. 11 s 6-7.
Lycopodina lycopodium; Hestetun et al., 2015: 335.
Material. ZMA Por. 01002, Russia, Kara Sea, Varna Expedition stat. 68, 71.3°N 63.5167°E, depth 135 m, coll. J.M. Ruijs, field nr. 83, 18 June 1883; label text:’Esperella cupressiformis var. lycopodium Lev., Varna-Exp. E. Arnesen det’; ZMA Por. 15309, Russia, Kara Sea, Varna Expedition, stat. 70, 71.3333°N 63.6333°E, depth 77.5 m, coll. J.M. Ruijs, field nr. 40, 20 February 1883, label text: ‘Asbestopluma spec.’, not original, no identifier mentioned; illegible small label present, possibly original.
Description. Two stalked-pennatulifom specimens (Fig. 10a, a1), the largest of which is 6 cm high, with a naked stalk of 1.5 cm and the part with side branches ca. 4.5 cm. Side branches 2-3 mm. The second specimen is 3.5 cm high. Color in alcohol red-brown or pale beige. Both specimens have become broken.
Skeleton. Axial skeleton of aligned longer styles, with side tracts of smaller styles at right angles to the axial skeleton. Surface skeleton crowded with clusters of anisochelae.
Spicules. (Fig. 10b-f) Styles, microstyles, anisochelae, forcipes.
Microstyles (Fig. 10d), slightly curved, equidiametrical until close to the pointed apex, rather variable in length and thickness, 115-180 × 2-8 µm.
Anisochelae (Fig. 10e) with the characteristic Asbestopluma-shape with lower alae sharply incised and provided with one or more spines on the middle ala rim, upper side alae covering the shaft entirely, 11.5-14.5 µm.
Forcipes (Fig. 10f), not common, with thin, somewhat irregular legs, ending in faintly swollen apices, sometimes crossed in the lower parts, length 28-48 µm.
Remarks. This species is the type of the newly revived genus Lycopodina Lundbeck, 1905. The shape of the specimens and the size of spicules are identical to the drawings and measurements given by Levinsen (1887). Lundbeck’s (1905) drawings of the habit of his specimens in his pl. II figs. 15 and 16 also conform to the present material, but the drawing of pl. II fig. 17 appears different. Lundbeck’s measurements of the forcipes (50-56 µm) exceed those of the present and Levinsen’s measurements, whereas measurements from a specimen from Rockall Bank, W of Ireland (Van Soest and Baker, 2011: table 2, as Asbestopluma) are smaller than the present. L. lycopodium still remains a species that needs revision before it can be assumed that the wide distribution (Kara Sea, The Faroes) is accurate.
Lycopodina robusta (Levinsen, 1887) (Fig. 11a-e)
Fig. 11. Lycopodina robusta (Levinsen, 1887), a habitus of ZMA Por. 01003a, a1 habitus of ZMA Por. 01003b (scale bar 1 cm); b-e SEM images of spicules of ZMA Por. 01003a; b longer style, b1 details of apices and middle of longer style; c shorter style, c1 details of apices and middle of shorter style; d anisochela; e forceps.
Esperella cupressiformis var. robusta Levinsen, 1887: 364, pl. 29 figs 10-11, pl. 31 figs 7-9, 10a-c, 11-14.
Asbestopluma (Lycopodina) cupressiformis; Lundbeck, 1905: 58, pl. 2 figs 11-14, pl. 11 figs 4-5.
Material. ZMA Por. 01003a, Russia, Kara Sea, Varna Expedition, stat. 70, 71.3333°N 63.6333°E, depth 77.5 m, coll. J.M. Ruijs, field nr. 40, 20 February 1883, label text: ‘Esperella cupressiformis var. robusta’; ZMA Por. 01003b, Russia, Kara Sea, Varna Expedition stat. 56, 71.4167°N 64.2667°E, depth 92 m, coll. J.M. Ruijs, field nr. 70, 15 May 1883; label text: ‘Esperella cupressiformis var. robusta’.
Both specimens are in the same bottle, 01003a in a glass tube.
Description. Two stalked specimens (Fig. 11a, a1), red-brown in color, with a distinct separation in a thin stalk and a thick somewhat club shaped body, but keeping the elongate pennatuliform form. Side branches in the main body are directed upwards causing a ‘grooved’ outlook of it. Size of the larger more complete specimen, which is fixed on a worm tube, 30 mm in total. with stalk 12 × 1-1.5 mm, and main body 18 × 2.5 mm. The second specimen is less than half the size of the first specimen.
Skeleton. Consisting of a tight-packed axial tract of spicules and branching tracts of the upper body. The surface of the main body is crowded with anisochelae.
Spicules. (Fig. 11b-e) Styles, anisochelae and forcipes.
Microstyles not certainly present, only one or two small styles were observed.
Anisochelae (Fig. 11d), as usual in Lycopodina, with upper side alae covering the shaft entirely and spiked rim of lower alae, 20-27 µm.
Forceps (Fig. 10e), fairly common, with short, straight, relatively thick legs curving outwards, ending in clearly developed swollen tips, 31-40 µm.
Remarks. The specimens conform closely to Levinsen’s Esperella cupressiformis var. robusta in shape as well as spicule complement. Lundbeck (1905) assigned this species to the synonymy of Asbestopluma (Lycopodina) cupressiformis (Carter, 1874), because of the similarity in spicule sizes and shapes with Carter’s descriptions. Lundbeck’s specimens as depicted in his pl. II figs 11-14 appear to be different from Carter’s drawings (1874: pl. 14 figs 16-19). Possibly, some of Lundbeck’s specimens, e.g. those reported from The Faroes, are genuine L. cupressiformis, but others, e.g. those from East Greenland may possibly be a different species. Spicule sizes of Lundbeck and the present ones are more or less the same as those of Carter’s specimens, but the differences in habitus point toward specific difference.
Lycopodina infundibulum (Levinsen, 1887) (Fig. 12a-g)
Fig. 12. Lycopodina infundibulum (Levinsen, 1887), ZMA Por. 01004, a habitus (scale bar 1 cm); b-g SEM images of spicules; b longest style, b1 detail of head of longest style; c intermediate-sized style, c1 details of apices of intermediate-sized style; d short style, d1 details of apices of short style; e wispy thin style; f anisochelae; g light-microscopic image of rare forceps.
Esperella infundibulum Levinsen, 1887: 366, p. 29 fig. 14, pl. 31 figs 17-19.
Asbestopluma (Lycopodina) infundibulum; Lundbeck, 1905: pl. 2 figs 20-21, pl. 11 fig. 9.
Lycopodina infundibulum; Hestetun et al., 2015: 335.
Material. ZMA Por. 01004, Russia, Kara Sea, Varna Expedition, locality not noted on the available labels, depth between 75 and 170 m, coll. J.M. Ruijs, 1882-1883; label text: ’Esperella infundibuliformis Lev. n.var., E. Arnesen det.’.
Description. A single specimen (Fig. 12a), light brown in alcohol, consisting of an open cup-shaped main body with a thin curved stalk ending in a small holdfast. Total length of specimen 27 mm, stalk 20 × < 1 mm, size of cup 9 × 5 mm.
Skeleton. Stalk consists of aligned tightly packed styles, main body a confused mass of styles with anisochelae crowded over the surface.
Spicules. (Fig. 12b-g) Styles, anisochelae, forcipes.
Styles in a large size range, but not clearly separable in categories, overall size 155-1340 × 5.5-20 µm, but with some overlappings three categories may be distinguished, (1) the larger styles (Fig. 12b, b1) are usually >1000 × 15-20 µm, (2) intermediate sizes, usually 300-600 × 5-10 µm, normal shaped (Fig. 12c, c1), or with thin wispy ends (Fig. 12e), the latter from the cup walls, and (3) short styles (Fig. 12d, d1), 155-420 × 2-5 µm, apparently from the rim of the cup (cf. Lundbeck, 1905: 69).
Anisochelae (Fig. 12f), with upper side alae only partially covering the shaft, which is naked for approximately 1/3 of its length, lower alae with spiked rims, 16-23 µm.
Forceps (Fig. 12g), not common (not found on the SEM stub, only on the glass slide), size 65-70 µm.
Remarks. The label text, which was made by the original identifier, the Norwegian spongologist E. Arnesen, concluded that this specimen belongs to an undescribed variety of Asbestopluma (Lycopodina) infundibulum. However, Lundbeck’s (1905) extensive treatment of specimens from the The Faroes as well as specimens from the Kara Sea from Levinsen’s collection, shows that there is no difference between his descriptions and the present specimen.