Contributions to Zoology, 77 (1) – 2008Ross Barnett; Nobuyuki Yamaguchi; Beth Shapiro; Richard Sabin: Ancient DNA analysis indicates the first English lions originated from North Africa

To refer to this article use this url:


Anonymus 1769. A historical account of the curiosities of London and Westminster. London: Bible and Sun.

Anonymus 1876. The land of the lion. London: Seeley, Jackson, and Halliday.

Bandelt HJ, Forster P, Rohl A. 1999. Median-joining networks for inferring intraspecific phylogenies. Moecular. Biology and Evolution 16: 37-48.

Barnett R, Yamaguchi N, Barnes I, Cooper A. 2006a. Lost population and preserving genetic diversity in the lion Panthera leo: implications for its ex situ conservation. Conservation Genetics 7: 507-514.

Barnett R, Yamaguchi N, Barnes I, Cooper A. 2006b. The origin, current diversity, and future conservation of the modern lion (Panthera leo). Proceedings of the Royal Society, Series BL Biological Science 273: 2119-2125.

Barnett R, Yamaguchi N, Shapiro B, Nijman V. 2007. Using ancient DNA techniques to identify the origin of unprovenanced museum specimens, as illustrated by the identification of a 19th century lion from Amsterdam. Contributions to Zoology 76:87-94.

Baratay E, Hardouin-Fugier, E. 2002. Zoo: A history of zoological gardens in the West. London: Reaktion Books.

BBC 2005. Big cats prowled London’s tower. [visited 24 October 2005].

Cracraft J, Feinstein J, Vaughn J, Helm-Bychowski K. 1998. Sorting out tigers (Panthera tigris): mitochondrial sequences, nuclear inserts, systematics, and conservation genetics. Animal Conservation 1: 139-150.

Dubach J, Patterson BD, Briggs MB, Venzke K, Flamand J, Stander P, Scheepers L, Kays RW. 2005. Molecular genetic variation across the southern and eastern geographic ranges of the African lion, Panthera leo. Conservation Genetics 6: 15-24.

Edwards J. 1996. London Zoo from old photographs 1852-1914. London: John Edwards (printed by Edward Charles).

Gittleman JL, Van Valkenburgh B. 1997. Sexual dimorphism in the canines and skulls of carnivores: effects of size, phylogeny, and behavioural ecology. Journal of Zoology, London 242: 97-117.

Hahn D. 2003. The Tower Menagerie. London: Simon and Schuster.

Hollister N. 1917. Some effects of environment and habit on captive lions. Proceedings of the United States National Museum 53: 177-193.

Jardine W. 1834. The naturaliat’s library, Mammalia, Vol. II, the Felinae. Edinburgh: W.H. Lizars.

Linnaeus C. 1758. Systema Naturae per regna tria naturae, secundum classis, ordines, genera, species cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. Tenth ed. Vol. 1: 41. Laurentii Salvii, Stockholm, 824 pp.

Lopez JV, Culver M, Stephens JC, Johnson WE, O’Brien SJ. 1997. Rates of nuclear and cytoplasmic mitochondrial DNA sequence in mammals. Molecular Ecology and Evolution 14: 277-286.

Nowell K, Jackson P. 1996. Wild cats: status survey and conservation action plan. Gland: IUCN.

O’Regan HJ, Turner A, Sabin RC. 2005. Medieval big cat remains from the Royal Menagerie at the Tower of London. International Journal of Osteoarchaeology 15: 1-10.

Patterson BD. 2004. The lions of Tsavo. New York, McGraw-Hill.

Shapiro B, Drummond AJ, Rambaut A, Wilson MC, Matheus PE, Sher AV, Pybus OG, Gilbert MTP, Barnes I, Binladen J, Willerslev E, Hansen AJ, Baryshnikov GF, Burns JA, Davydov S, Driver JC, Froese DG, Harington CR, Keddie G, Kosintsev P, Kunz ML, Martin LD, Stephenson RO, Storer J, Tedford R, Zimov S, Cooper A. 2004. Rise and fall of the Beringian steppe bison. Science 306: 1561-1565.

Tabachnick BG, Fidell LS. 2007. Using Multivariate Statistics Fifth Edition. Boston, Pearson.

Yamaguchi N. 2000a. The Barbary lion and the Cape lion: their phylogenetic places and conservation. African Lion News 1: 9-11.

Yamaguchi N. 2000b. The Barbary lion project: its feasibility and potential. African Lion News 2: 12-13.

Yamaguchi N, Driscoll CA, Kitchener AC, Ward JM, Macdonald DW. 2004. Craniological differentiation amongst the European wildcat (Felis silvestris silvestris), the African wildcat (F. s. lybica) and the Asian wildcat (F. s. ornata): implications for their evolution and conservation. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 83: 47-64.

Yamaguchi N, Haddane B. 2002. The North African Barbary lion and the Atlas Lion Project. International Zoo News 49: 465-481.