Contributions to Zoology, 79 (4) – 2010José L. Carballo; José A. Cruz-Barraza: A revision of the genus Mycale (Poecilosclerida: Mycalidae) from the Mexican Pacific Ocean
Appendix

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Subgenus Carmia Gray, 1867

Mycale (Carmia) aff. magnirhaphidifera Van Soest, 1984

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(Figs 3D, 7)

FIG2

Fig. 7. LM and SEM images of spicules of Mycale (Carmia) aff. magnirhaphidifera Van Soest, 1984. A, Mycalostyles; B, Mycalostyles’ ends detail; C, Anisochelae I; D, Anisochelae II; E, Sigmas; F, Rahides; G, Tangential view of ectosomal reticular skeleton, arrow shows a raphidotoxas group; H, Choanosomal structure.

Mycale (Carmia) magnirhaphidifera, Van Soest, 1984
Mycale (Carmia) magnirhaphidifera.- Hajdu and Rützler, 1998: 755; Carballo and Hajdu, 2001: 211; Cruz-Barraza and Carballo, 2008: 754
Mycale cecilia.- Wells and Wells in: Wells et al., 1960: 212. [not M. cecilia De Laubenfels, 1936b, a valid species; see below]
Material examined. LEB-ICML-UNAM-45, cerro el Crestón (Sinaloa), 23º10’46’’N, 106º25’33’’W, intertidal, 26.x.1999. LEB-ICML-UNAM-85, Peña de la Virgen (Nayarit), 21º31’05’’N, 105º20’05’’W, 5 m, 22.xi.1999. LEB-ICML-UNAM-130, Punta Chile (Sinaloa), 23º12’29’’N, 106º25’40’’W, intertidal, 19.ii.1992. LEB-ICML-UNAM-196, Isla Pájaros 1(Sinaloa), 23º15’29’’N, 106º28’25’’W, 8 m, 9.vi.2000. LEB-ICML-UNAM-227, puente Maviri (Sinaloa), 25º34’55’’N, 109º06’52’’W, 2 m, 21.vi.2000. LEB-ICML-UNAM-234, estero el Zacate (Sinaloa), 25º36’25’’N, 109º04’33’’W, 2 m, 21.vi.2000. LEB-ICML-UNAM-259, Paraje Viejo (Sinaloa), 27º55’34’’N, 110º57’12’’W, 8 m, 4.xi.2000. LEB-ICML-UNAM-280, ensenada de Bacochibampo (Sonora), 27º54’37’’N, 110º57’12’’W, 5 m, 6.xi.2000. LEB-ICML-UNAM-404, puente Ventana (Colima), 19º02’08’’N, 104º20’34’’W, 2 m, 15.xi.2001. LEB-ICML-UNAM-407, Cerritos (Sinaloa), 23°18’51”N, 106°29’31”W, 2 m, 30.x.2001. LEB-ICML-UNAM-619, Conchas Chinas (Jalisco), 20º35’16’’N, 105° 14’42’’W, 5 m, 8.x.2002. LEB-ICML-UNAM-687, Islas Verdes (Sinaloa), 25°31’47’’N, 109°05’27’’W, 2 m, 13.xi.2002. LEB-ICML-UNAM-696, estero ‘El Bichi’ (Sinaloa), 25°32’27’’N, 109°05’29’’W, 1 m, 13.xi.2002. LEB-ICML-UNAM-708, cerro Partido (Sinaloa), 25°32’7’’N, 109°05’33’’W, 1 m, 13.xi.2002. LEB-ICML-UNAM-710, estero el Zacate (Sinaloa), 25º36’25’’N, 109º04’33’’W, 2 m, 14.xi.2002. LEB-ICML-UNAM-722, Puente Maviri (Sinaloa), 25º34’55’’N, 109º06’52’’W, 8 m, 14.xi.2002. LEB-ICML-UNAM-776 Conchas Chinas (Jalisco), 20º35’16’’N, 105°14’42’’W, 5 m, 8.x.2002. LEB-ICML-UNAM-820, antiguo Corral del Risco (Nayarit), 20°46’20’’N, 105°32’49’’W, 2 m, 11.vi.2003. LEB-ICML-UNAM-871, Chacala (Nayarit), 21º09’57’’N, 105º13’38’’W, 4 m, 12.vi.2003. LEB-ICML-UNAM-890, Isla el Crestón (Sinaloa), 23º11’02’’N, 106º25’37’’W, 7 m, 10.ix.2003. LEB-ICML-UNAM-917, Isla Lobos (Sinaloa), 23º13’27.7’’N, 106º28’01.6’’W, 7 m, 3.x.2003. LEB-ICML-UNAM-937, Isla Hermano Sur (Sinaloa), 23º11’16.2’’N, 106º25’11.5’’W, 6 m, 22.x.2003. LEB-ICML-UNAM-950, Isla Hermano Norte (Sinaloa), 23º10’59’’N, 106º26’24’’W, 8 m, 24.x.2003. LEB-ICML-UNAM-978, Isla Chivos (Sinaloa), 23º10’40.’’N, 106º24’48.2’’W, 8 m, 26.xi.2003. LEB-ICML-UNAM-981, Isla Cardones (Sinaloa), 23º11’05’’N, 106º24’07’’W, 6 m, 26.xi.2003. LEB-ICML-UNAM-1110, Punta Pinta (Sonora), 31º20’14’’N, 96º05’20’’W, 4 m, 4.iii.2005. LEB-ICML-UNAM-1198, submarino (Sinaloa), 23º09’59’’N, 106º25’05’’W, 18 m, 5.iii.2005. LEB-ICML-UNAM-1217, La Entrega (Oaxaca), 15º42’50’’N, 96º05’20’’W, 4 m, 4.v.2005. LEB-ICML-UNAM-1303, Isla Cacaluta (Oaxaca), 15º38’23’’N, 96º29’01’’W, 4 m, 4.v.2005. LEB-ICML-UNAM-1383, El Requesón, bahía Concepción (Baja California Sur), 26º38’38’’N, 111º49’53’’W, 9 m, 29.x.2006. LEB-ICML-UNAM-1397, El Requesón, bahía Concepción (Baja California Sur), 26º38’38’’N, 111º49’53’’W, 9 m, 29.x.2006. LEB-ICML-UNAM-1438, La Granja, Isla Espíritu Santo (Baja California Sur), 24º25’32’’N, 110º20’55’’W, 0.5 m, 12.iii.2007. LEB-ICML-UNAM-1532, cerro Pelón, Isla Isabel (Nayarit), 21º51’21’’N, 105º53’33’’W, 5 m, 11.ii.2007. LEB-ICML-UNAM-1537, Cabo San Lucas (Baja California Sur), 22º52’45’’N, 109º54’15’’W, 1.5 m, 25.x.2007. LEB-ICML-UNAM-1586, cerro de la Virgen (Sinaloa), 25º36’57’’N, 108º58’11’’W, 2 m, 11.xii.2002.

Description. The species is always thinly encrusting, 0.5-2.5 mm thick, frequently covering several cm2. Color in life most frequently deep-purple to bluish-purple; cream to orange-yellow in shaded zones (Fig. 3D). Preserved specimens are ochre or cream. They are fragile, very soft, and possess a smooth surface. Subectosomal canals are very conspicuous to the naked eye. In live specimens superficial canals (0.6-1.2 mm in diameter) are clearly visible from the surface by a translucent dermal membrane, and lead to slightly elevated oscules (0.3-1.0 μm in diameter). Surface of the sponge is punctuate, with subectosomal spaces 150-500 μm in diameter, abundant and regularly distributed on the surface. Over the spaces are very small ectosomal sieve-like pores 33-70 μm in diameter.

Spicules. Megascleres are mycalostyles, and the microscleres are anisochelae in two categories, sigmas, raphides and raphidotoxas (Table 3).

FIG2

Table 3. Distribution and comparative data for the dimensions of spicules (in μm) of Mycale (Carmia) magnirhaphidifera Van Soest, 1984 specimens. Values in parentheses are means.

Mycalostyles, are slender smooth, mostly straight and with sharp points (Fig. 7A). Measurements: 155-317 × 2.5-5.0 μm; tyle diameter: 2.5-7.5 μm. (Fig. 7B).

Anisochelae I are slender, 20 to 45 μm in length, very slightly curved in profile view, head about ca. 50% of total spicule length (Fig. 7C). Anisochelae II from 10 to 19.5 μm in length, with palmate head ca. 55% of total length of the spicule (Fig. 7D). C-shaped sigmas are not very abundant (Fig. 7E). Measurements: 20-60 μm; raphides, short and fusiform (microxea-like), with a sharp point (Fig. 7F). Measurements: 10-25 μm. Raphidotoxas are very thin, straight, or slightly bent with a sharp point (Fig. 7G), from 230 to 317 μm long.

Skeleton. Ectosomal skeleton consisting mainly of raphidotoxas arranged tangentially without a defined structure (Fig. 7G). Rosettes of anisochelae -I and some other free anisochelae and sigmas are also present. The choanosomal skeleton is made of sinuous ascending tracts of mycalostyles 15-75 μm in diameter, which diverge slightly into brushes when approaching the surface (Fig. 7H).

Distribution. The species is widespread in the Tropical western Atlantic and Pacific Ocean (Carballo and Hajdu, 2001; Cruz-Barraza and Carballo, 2008) (Fig. 1).

Remarks. See in Discussion the paragraph Regarding the presence of the Caribbean M. magnirhaphidifera in the east Pacific Ocean.

Mycale (Carmia) cecilia De Laubenfels, 1936

(Figs 8A-B, 9)

FIG2

Fig. 8. External morphology. A, B, Mycale (Carmia) cecilia de Laubenfels, 1936; C, D, Mycale ramulosa sp. nov.

Mycale cecilia De Laubenfels, 1936b: 447
Mycale microsigmatosa.- Green and Gómez, 1986: 284. [not Mycale microsigmatosa (Arndt, 1927), a valid species from the Western Atlantic]
Mycale angulosa.- Dickinson, 1945: 23. [not Pandaros angulosa (Duchassaing and Michelotti, 1864), a valid species from the Western Atlantic]
Mycale cecilia.- De Laubenfels, 1950: 24; Desqueyroux-Faúndez and Van Soest, 1997: 450; Cruz-Barraza and Carballo, 2008: 751
Mycale maunakea De Laubenfels, 1951
Material examined. [L35519 D46: NHMLAC] Mycale angulosa (Duchassaing and Michelotti, 1964).- Dickinson 1945, Velero Sta. 1039-40 (AHF), Guaymas, Sonora, 10 m, 23.i.1940, LEB-ICML-UNAM-1, Cerritos (Sinaloa), 23º18’27’’N, 106º29’25’’W, 3 m, 31.xi.1997. LEB-ICML-UNAM-20, muelle pesca deportiva (Sinaloa), 23º10’13’’N, 106º25’46’’W, 1 m, 14.x.1999. LEB-ICML-UNAM-23, muelle pesca deportiva (Sinaloa), 23º10’13’’N, 106º25’46’’W, 1 m, 14.x.1999. LEB-ICML-UNAM-40, Isla Lobos (Sinaloa), 23º13’49’’N, 106º27’43’’W, 3 m, 25.x.1999. LEB-ICML-UNAM-43, cerro el Crestón (Sinaloa), 23º10’46’’N, 106º25’33’’W, intertidal, 26.x.1999. LEB-ICML-UNAM-44, cerro el Crestón (Sinaloa), 23º10’46’’N, 106º25’33’’W intertidal, 26.x.1999. LEB-ICML-UNAM-54, estero del pozo (Nayarit), 21º32’48’’N, 105º17’57’’W, 3 m, 19.xi.1999. LEB-ICML-UNAM-73, Peña de la Virgen (Nayarit), 21º31’05’’N, 105º20’05’’W, 5 m, 22.xi.1999. LEB-ICML-UNAM-112, Marina del Cid (Sinaloa), 23º10’89’’N, 106º25’44’’W, 3 m, 27.xi.1999. LEB-ICML-UNAM-127, Punta Chile (Sinaloa), 23º12’29’’N, 106º25’40’’W, intertidal, 19.ii.2000. LEB-ICML-UNAM-140, Chacala (Nayarit), 21º09’57’’N, 105º13’38’’W, 4 m, 20.ii.2000. LEB-ICML-UNAM-148, Chacala (Nayarit), 21º09’57’’N, 105º13’38’’W, 2 m, 20.ii.2000. LEB-ICML-UNAM-164, Isla Cardones (Sinaloa), 23º11’05’’N, 106º24’07’’W, 8 m, 15.iii. 00. LEB-ICML-UNAM- 166, Isla Pájaros (Sinaloa), 23º15’29’’N, 106º28’25’’W, 5 m, 16. iii.2000. LEB-ICML-UNAM- 202, estero el Zacate (Sinaloa), 25º36’25’’N, 109º04’33’’W, 1 m, 21.vi.2000. LEB-ICML-UNAM-223, puente Maviri (Sinaloa), 25º34’55’’N, 109º06’52’’W, 2 m, 21.vi.2000. LEB-ICML-UNAM-229, estero el Zacate (Sinaloa), 25º36’25’’N, 109º04’33’’W, 2 m, 21.vi.2000. LEB-ICML-UNAM-233, estero el Zacate (Sinaloa), 25º36’25’’N, 109º04’33’’W 2 m, 21.vi.2000. LEB-ICML-UNAM-239, Isla Patos (Sinaloa), 25º37’12’’N, 109º00’56’’W, 3 m, 22.vi.2000. LEB-ICML-UNAM-248, Isla Tunosa (Sinaloa), 25º34’58’’N, 109º00’51’’W, 2 m, 22.vi. 2000. LEB-ICML-UNAM- 252, Isla Tunosa (Sinaloa), 25º34’58’’N, 109º00’51’’W, 3 m, 22.vi.2000. LEB-ICML-UNAM-263, Paraje Viejo (Sonora), 27º52’20’’N, 110º52’08’’W, 12 m, 4.xi.2000. LEB-ICML-UNAM-282, Ensenada de Bacochibampo (Sonora) 27º54’37’’N, 110º57’12’’W, 5 m, 6.xi.2000. LEB-ICML-UNAM-350 Isla San José (Baja California Sur) 25°01’41’’N, 110°42’19’’W, 1 m, 29.iii. 2001. LEB-ICML-UNAM-385 punta Santiago (Colima), 19°05’41’’N, 104°25’22’’W 2 m, 16.xi.2001. LEB-ICML-UNAM-401 puente Ventana (Colima), 19º02’08’’N, 104º20’34’’W, 2 m, 15.xi.2001. LEB-ICML-UNAM-468, Isla Redonda (Nayarit), 20°42’04’’N, 105°33’89’’W, 10 m, 5.iv.2002. LEB-ICML-UNAM-479, Careyeros (Nayarit), 20°47’13’’N, 105°71’13’’W, 2 m, 5.iv.2002. LEB-ICML-UNAM-497, Los Arcos (Jalisco), 20°32’73’’N, 105°18’47’W, 4 m, 8.iv.2002. LEB-ICML-UNAM-505, Playa los Muertos (Nayarit), 20°52’29’’N, 105 26’72’’W, 3 m, 9.iv.2002. LEB-ICML-UNAM-552, Ensenada del Pabellón (Culiacán), 22º7’33’’N, 107º18’37’’W, 3 m, 6.vii.2002. LEB-ICML-UNAM-621, Conchas Chinas, (Jalisco), 20º35’16’’N, 105 14’42’’W, 3 m, 8.x.2002. LEB-ICML-UNAM-669, muelle del contenedor (Sinaloa), 25°34’55’’N, 109°03’32’’W, 4 m, 12.xi.2002. LEB-ICML-UNAM-682, Isla Tunosa (Sinaloa), 25º34’58’’N, 109º00’51’’W, 2 m, 12.xi.2002. LEB-ICML-UNAM-684, Islas Verdes (Sinaloa) 25°31’47’’N, 109°05’27’’W, 2 m, 13.xi.2002. LEB-ICML-UNAM-693, estero ‘El Bichi’ (Sinaloa), 25°32’27’’N, 109°05’29’’W, 1 m, 13.xi.2002. LEB-ICML-UNAM-702, Cerro Partido (Sinaloa), 25°32’07’’N, 109°05’33’’W, 1 m, 13.xi.2002. LEB-ICML-UNAM-714, estero el Zacate (Sinaloa), 25º36’25’’N, 109º04’33’’W, 2 m, 14.xi.2002. LEB-ICML-UNAM-724, puente Maviri (Sinaloa), 25º34’55’’N, 109º06’52’’W, 4 m, 14.xi.2002. LEB-ICML-UNAM-747, Paraje Viejo (Sonora), 27º52’20’’N, 110º52’08’’W, 6 m, 26.xi.2002. LEB-ICML-UNAM-792, Mismaloya (Jalisco), 20°31’56.22’’N, 105°17’42’’W, 5 m, 9.vi.2003. LEB-ICML-UNAM-814, Isla Redonda (Nayarit), 20°42’04’’N, 105°33’89’’W, 12 m, 10.vi.2003. LEB-ICML-UNAM-852, Majahuita (Jalisco), 20°29’06’’N, 105°35’03’’W, 7 m, 8.vi.2003. LEB-ICML-UNAM-872, Chacala (Nayarit), 21º09’57’’N, 105º13’38’’W, 4 m, 12.vi.2003. LEB-ICML-UNAM-883, Isla el Crestón (Sinaloa), 23º11’02’’N, 106º25’37’’W, 7 m, 10.ix.2003. LEB-ICML-UNAM-923, Isla Hermano Sur (Sinaloa), 23º11’16’’N, 106º25’11.5’’W, 8 m, 22.x.2003. LEB-ICML-UNAM-954, Isla Hermano Norte (Sinaloa), 23º10’59’’N, 106º26’24’’W, 8 m, 24.x.2003. LEB-ICML-UNAM-975, Isla Chivos (Sinaloa), 23º10’40’’N, 106º24’48’’W, 8 m, 26.xi.2003. LEB-ICML-UNAM-1019, Cerro San Carlos (Sinaloa), 25º35’33’’N, 109º02’39’’W, 2 m, 11.xii. 2002. LEB-ICML-UNAM-1099, La Entrega (Oaxaca), 15º42’50’’N, 96º05’20’’W, 6 m, 14.iv.2004. LEB-ICML-UNAM-1112, punta Pinta (Sonora), 31º20’14’’N, 96º05’20’’W, 4 m, 03.iv.2005. LEB-ICML-UNAM-1124, punta Pinta (Sonora), 31º20’14’’N, 96º05’20’’W, 4 m, 03.iv.2005. LEB-ICML-UNAM-1143, El Muelle (Oaxaca), 15º40’23’’N, 96º31’01’’W, 25 m, 15.iv.2004. LEB-ICML-UNAM-1168, Las Monas, Isla Isabel (Nayarit), 21º50’59’’N, 105º52’46’’W, 6 m, 07.ii.2005. LEB-ICML-UNAM-1200, submarino (Sinaloa), 23º09’59’’N, 106º25’05’’W, 18 m, 03.v.2005. LEB-ICML-UNAM-1216, La Entrega (Oaxaca), 15º42’50’’N, 96º05’20’’W, 4 m, 05.iv.2005. LEB-ICML-UNAM- 1230, Isla Cacaluta (Oaxaca), 15º38’23’’N, 96º29’01’’W, 4 m, 04.viii.2005. LEB-ICML-UNAM- 1287, El Arrocito (Oaxaca), 15º44’25’’N, 96º05’03’’W, 4 m, 11.iv.2005. LEB-ICML-UNAM-1346, Isla Cacaluta (Oaxaca), 15º38’23’’N, 96º29’01’’W, 5 m, 24.vii.2005. LEB-ICML-UNAM-1376, El Requesón (Baja California Sur), 26º38’38’’N, 111º49’53’’W, 9 m, 29.x.2006. LEB-ICML-UNAM-1435, La Granja, Isla Espíritu Santo (Baja California Sur), 24º25’32’’N, 110º20’55’’W, 0.5 m, 12.iii.2007. LEB-ICML-UNAM-1452, muelle petrolero (Baja California Sur), 24º13’23’’N, 110º18’44’’W, 4 m, 12.iii. 2007. LEB-ICML-UNAM-1583, cerro de la Virgen (Sinaloa), 25º36’57’’N, 108º58’11’’W, 2 m, 12.xi. 2002. LEB-ICML-UNAM-1602, piedra del Asadero (Nayarit), 21º34’45’’N, 105º29’45’’W, 2 m, 11.iii. 2007.

Description. Incrusting to cushion-shaped sponge 1-9 mm thick. Specimens commonly red to reddish-orange, or green with yellow, or almost blue, but always with distinctive small orange patches (Fig. 8A, B). Preserved specimens ochre or light brown. Consistency is very soft and fragile after preservation. Surface is smooth. Subectosomal canals, 150-850 μm in diameter, converging to oscula, and subectosomal spaces 20-759 μm, are common. Small ectosomal pores about 33 μm in diameter on sponge surface. Oscules circular to oval, 0.5-4.0 mm in diameter, and commonly elevated from the surface about 3 mm by a translucent dermal membrane.

Spicules. Megascleres are mycalostyles, and the microscleres are anisochelae in one category (Fig. 13B, C) and sigmas (Table 4).

FIG2

Table 4. Distribution and comparative data of external color and the dimensions of spicules (in μm) of Mycale (Carmia) cecilia de Laubenfels, 1936 specimens. Values in parentheses are means.

Mycalostyles are straight, with sharp or blunt points and with a characteristic faintly marked oval head (Fig. 9A, B). Measurements: 130-290 × 2.1-8.8 μm; tyle diameter: 2.5-10.0 μm.

FIG2

Fig. 9. SEM images of spicules of Mycale (Carmia) cecilia de Laubenfels, 1936. A, Mycalostyles; B, Mycalostyles’ ends detail; C, Anisochelae; D, Sigma; E, Tangential view of ectosomal reticular skeleton; F, Transversal view of choanosomal structure.

Anisochelae from 12.5 to 27.5 μm long but in a single category (Figs. 9C, 13B, C) and C-shaped sigmas from 15 to 50 μm (Fig. 9D).

Skeleton. The ectosomal membrane lacks spicules, only free tylostyles are arranged tangentially (Fig. 9E). Sigmas and anisochelae are also distributed throughout the surface. The choanosomal skeleton is plumoreticulate made of ascending multispicular tracts of mycalostyles (30-300 μm in diameter) reinforced with variable amounts of spongin, which slightly diverge into brushes when approaching the surface (Fig. 9F). In some places, a few of these choanosomal tracts 30-150 μm in diameter continue tangentially over the surface. Microscleres, anisochelae, and sigmas common all over the sponge.

Distribution. The species is quite common in the Mexican Pacific (Cruz-Barraza and Carballo, 2008, present study, see Fig. 1). It is common in the east Pacific Ocean from Hawaii (De Laubenfels 1950) to Panama (De Laubenfels 1936b).

Mycale (Carmia) contax (Dickinson, 1945)
Carmia contax Dickinson, 1945: 24
Material examined. The holotype labeled as AHF no. 12; Material- Sta. 751-37 Los Frailes 4-4-37 20 m was not found in the Hallan Hancock collection, currently deposited in the Museum of Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County (NHMLAC) (USA).

Description. No material was studied, so a brief description was adapted from Dickinson, 1945. The sponge is about 2 cm2 by 0.5 cm thick. The surface is irregular. The consistency is softly spongy. Pores and oscules are not evident. Ectosomal membrane very thin and detachable in some places.

Spicules. The megascleres are styles to subtylostyles, and as microscleres present anisochelae in 3 size categories, sigmas, toxas and raphides. Mycalostyles of 300 by 3 μm in average.

Anisochelae I) from 21 to 23 μm, anisochelae II) from 14 to 16 μm and anisochelae III) from 6 to 7 μm in length. Sigmas from 18 to 75 μm. Toxas are long, averaging 55 μm, and raphides are up to 150 μm long.

Skeleton. Ectosomal membrane with some spicules in confusion. The choanosomal skeleton made of ascending multispicular fibres of subtylostyles.

Distribution and habitat. Type locality, Los Frailes (Los Cabos, Lower California); 20 m; sand and algae bottom.

Remarks. The type material of M. contax (Dickinson, 1945) was not found in the Allan Hancock Foundation, where most of the sponges collected by Dickinson were deposited. However, the original description is clear enough to considerer it as a valid species.

The species is distinguished from other species belonging to the subgenus Carmia because of the presence of long toxas (55 μm, in average) and raphides up to 150 μm long. Other two Mycale (Carmia) with long raphides are, M. (C.) magnirhaphidifera Van Soest, 1984, which has longer raphides (from 315 to 367 μm) and shorter sigmas, and does not have toxas, and M. (C.) rhaphidotoxa Hentschel, 1912 from Arafura Sea (Indonesia), which has also larger raphides (200-400 μm), sigmas over 60 μm long, and in addition has not toxas (Carballo and Hajdu, 2001). Other two species with long raphides are M. (Aegogropila) mannarensis Thomas, 1968 from the Gulf of Mannar (India), and Mycale (A.) kolletae Carballo and Hajdu, 2001, from the Atlantic coast of Africa, both clearly different to M. (C.) contax by their typical Aegogropila ectosomal skeleton. M. (Zygomycale) parishi also has long raphides (from 30 to 160 μm), but the spicular complements of this species, and the ectosomal skeleton, are very different to those in M. (C.) contax (see Remarks in M. (Zygomycale) ramulosa).