The ﬁrst and the second PCA axes explained, respectively, c. 47% and c. 20% of the variance, for both males and females (Table 1). The ﬁrst axis had high factor loadings for limb and digit variables (0.76 to 0.89). The second axis had high loadings for head length and head width (0.54 to 0.84). Hence, the variation observed for head shape and the size of the extremities was largely independent. Mean population factor scores for the ﬁrst axis increased from south to north, reﬂecting an increase in relative size of limbs and digits (Figs. 3 and 6). Mean factor scores for the second axis did not show any readily interpretable geographic pattern (Fig. 3).