Contributions to Zoology, 70 (4) (2002)Miguel Vences; Frank Glaw; Franco Andreone; Riccardo Jesu; Giovanni Schimmenti: Systematic revision of the enigmatic Malagasy broad-headed frogs (Laurentomantis Dubois, 1980), and their phylogenetic position within the endemic mantellid radiation of Madagascar

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Appendix: Characters used for analysis

Character 1. Medial contact of nasals: (0) close medial contact between nasals, (1) nasals narrowly separated medially, (2) nasals widely separated medially.

Character 2. Squamosal: (0) zygomatic process of squamosal of similar length or longer than posterior (otic) process, (1) zygomatic process of squamosal slightly shorter than posterior (otic) process, (2) zygomatic process of squamosal much shorter than posterior (otic) process.

Character 3.Maxilla preorbital process of pars fascialis: (0) a distinct triangular or elongate process at the level of palatines, mostly directed posteriorly, (1) a small distinct triangular or elongate process at the level of palatines, (2) process absent or very reduced.

Character 4.Maxilla preorbital process, anterior part: (0) maxilla anteriorly not especially high, (1) maxilla anteriorly with a distinct process, separated from preorbital process by a deep notch, (2) maxilla anteriorly high, with a similar height to the preorbital process which is protruding still higher, (3) maxilla anteriorly high, continuing to the level of the palatines, without additional preorbital process, (4) maxilla anteriorly very high, with two protruding processes, an anterior one and a second one at the level of the palatines.

Character 5.Anterior end of maxilla: (0) concave, (1) convex.

Character 6.Palatines: (0) reaching medially to vomerine odontophore, (1) reaching medially further than odontophore.

Character 7. Vomerine odontophore and vomerine teeth: (0) teeth and odontophore present, (1) teeth absent or rudimentary, odontophore present but very thin, (2) teeth and odontophore absent.

Character 8.Maxillary teeth: (0) present, (1) absent.

Character 9. Parasphenoid: (0) not reaching palatines anteriorly, (1) reaching palatines anteriorly.

Character 10.Separation of atlantal cotyles: (0) wide (distance between cotyles larger than their width), (1) narrow (distance between cotyles smaller than their width).

Character 11.Vertebral column: (0) procoelous, (1) diplasiocoelous.

Character 12. Base of omosternum: (0) unforked, (1) slightly forked, the greatest space between the arms is less than half the width of one arm, (2) moderately forked, the greatest space between the arms is once to twice the width of one arm, (3) broadly forked, the greatest space between the arms is two to four times the with of one arm.

Character 13. Relative omosternum length: (0) longer than sternum, (1) of same length as sternum, (2) shorter than sternum.

Character 14. Base of sternum: (0) unforked, (1) forked.

Character 15. Intercalary element: (0) absent, (1) present.

Character 16. Free distal tarsals: (0) three free tarsals, the third tarsal being rather large, (1) three free tarsals, the third tarsal being small, (2) three free tarsals, the third tarsal being extremely small, (3) two free tarsals.

Character 17.Number of prehallux elements arranged in one row: (0) two, (1) three, (2) four.

Character 18.Additional prehallux element, leading to an axe-shape: (0) absent, (1) present, very small, (2) present, distinct.

Character 19.Terminal phalanges: (0) not bilobed nor forked (more or less knob-like), (1) very slightly bilobed, (2) distinctly bilobed or slightly Y-shaped, (3) distinctly Y-shaped.

Character 20.Anterolateral process of hyoid plate: (0) absent, (1) rudimentary, (2) present and distinct.

Character 21.Posterolateral process of hyoid plate: (0) absent, (1) rudimentary, (2) present and distinct.

Character 22.Femoral glands in males (according to Glaw et al. 2000): (0) absent, (1) gland type 1, (2) gland type 2, (3) gland type 3, (4) gland type 4.

Character 23.Enlarged distal femoral gland section with external central median depression in males: (0) absent, (1) present.

Character 24. Femoral glands in females: (0) absent, (1) present as rudiments.

Character 25. Tibial glands (0) absent, (1) present in males (present or absent in females).

Character 26.Nuptial pads and reproductive behaviour: (0) nuptial pads present (as far as known, strong mating amplexus and release calls present), (1) nuptial pads absent (as far as known, strong mating amplexus and release calls absent).

Character 27.Egg deposition: (0) aquatic, (1) terrestrial.

Character 28. Maximum number of eggs laid by one female: (0) >1000, (1) 500-1000, (2) 100-500, (3) <100.

Character 29. Maximum diameter of eggs or mature oocytes in gravid females: (0) 1-2 mm, (1) larger than 2 mm.

Character 30. Tadpole morphology: (0) generalized tadpole, (1) specialized phytotelmous tadpole, (2) funnel-mouth tadpole, (3) specialized tadpole with probably filtering mouthparts, (4) (probably) direct development.

Character 31. Larval development in: (0) free lentic water, (1) free lotic water, (2) phytotelmes or tree holes, (3) (probably) outside free water.

Character 32.Calling activity: (0) mainly diurnal, (1) diurnal and nocturnal, (2) mainly nocturnal.

Character 33.Habits: (0) terrestrial/semiaquatic, (1) scansorial, (2) arboreal.

Character 34. Circummarginal groove ventrally on finger and toe pads: (0) absent or incomplete, (1) complete.

Character 35. Fingertips: (0) not enlarged, (1) slightly enlarged, (2) distinctly enlarged.

Character 36.Relative finger length: (0) second finger longer than first finger, (1) first and second finger of similar length, (2) first finger longer than second finger.

Character 37.Relative toe length: (0) fifth toe longer than third toe, (1) fifth and third toe of similar length, (2) fifth toe shorter than third toe.

Character 38.Lateral metatarsalia: (0) separated by webbing, (1) partly connected, (2) connected.

Character 39.Webbing between fingers: (0) present and distinct, (1) absent or almost absent.

Character 40.Inner foot webbing at fourth toe: (0) 0-1 phalanges free of web, (1) 1.5-2 phalanges free of web, (2) 2.5-3 phalanges free of web, (3) no foot webbing.

Character 41.Outer metatarsal tubercle: (0) absent, (1) present.

Character 42. Outer metacarpal tubercles: (0) single or indistinct, (1) double and prominent.

Character 43.Relative foot length: (0) foot longer than tibia, (1) foot and tibia more or less of same length, (2) foot shorter than tibia.

Character 44.Relative hindlimb length: tibiotarsal articulation mostly reaches: (0) between tympanum and eye, (1) beyond eye, not beyond nostril, (2) beyond nostril, not beyond snout tip, (3) beyond snout tip.

Character 45.Sexual dimorphism in relative tympanum size: (0) tympanum of similar size in males and females, (1) tympanum distinctly larger in males than in females.

Character 46. Dermal spines or prominent granules above eyes: (0) absent, (1) present.

Character 47.Position of nostrils: (0) nearer to eye than to snout tip, (1) midway between eye and snout tip, (2) nearer to snout tip than to eye.

Character 48.Vocal sac: (0) single or slightly bilobed subgular, (1) paired subgular.

Character 49. Vocal sac color: (0) no conspicuous color (not clearly differing from general ventral coloration), (1) black, (2) white.

Character 50. Vocal sac inflation: (0) vocal sac slightly distensible, (1) vocal sac largely distensible.

Character 51. Dorsal skin: (0) smooth, (1) slightly granular, (2) moderately to coarsely granular.

Character 52.Cellular DNA content: (0) around modal value, (1) distinctly lower than modal value.

Character 53.Karyotype: (0) 2n=26 chromosomes, (1) 2n=24 chromosomes.

Character 54.Acrocentric chromosomes: (0) absent, (1) present.