Contributions to Zoology, 84 (3) – 2015Lucio Bonato; Alessandro Minelli; Leandro Drago; Luis Alberto Pereira: The phylogenetic position of Dinogeophilus and a new evolutionary framework for the smallest epimorphic centipedes (Chilopoda: Epimorpha)

To refer to this article use this url:


Attems C. 1929. Myriapoda 1. Geophilomorpha. Das Tierreich 52. Berlin: De Gruyter.

Bonato L, Drago L, Murienne J. 2014. Phylogeny of Geophilomorpha (Chilopoda) inferred from new morphological and molecular evidence. Cladistics 30: 485-507.

Bonato L, Edgecombe GD, Lewis JGE, Minelli A, Pereira LA, Shelley RM, Zapparoli M. 2010. A common terminology for the external anatomy of centipedes (Chilopoda). Zookeys 69: 17-51.

Bonato L, Edgecombe GD, Zapparoli M. 2011. Chilopoda – Taxonomic overview. Pp. 363-443 in: Minelli A, ed, Treatise on Zoology – The Myriapoda, Volume 1. Leiden: Brill.

Bonato L, Zapparoli M. 2011. Chilopoda – Geographical distribution. Pp. 327-337 in: Minelli A, ed, Treatise on Zoology – The Myriapoda, Volume 1. Leiden: Brill.

Brena C. 2014. The embryoid development of Strigamia maritima and its bearing on post-embryonic segmentation of geophilomorph centipedes. Frontiers in Zoology 11: 58.

Brolemann HW. 1930. Éléments d’une faune des myriapodes de France. Chilopodes. Toulouse: Imprimérie Toulousaine.

Brölemann HW, Ribaut H. 1912. Essai d’une monographie des Schendylina (Myriapodes Géophilomorphes). Nouvelles Archives du Muséum d’Histoire Naturelle, Paris 4: 53-183.

Chalande J, Ribaut H. 1909. Études sur la systématique de la famille des Himantariidae (Myriapodes). Archives de Zoologie expérimentale et générale 41: 197-275.

Crabill RE. 1968. Two new species of Mesoschendyla from old world tropics with a key to their congeners (Chilopoda: Geophilomorpha. Schendylidae). Revue de Zoologie et de Botanique Africaines 77: 283-288.

Dugon MM, Arthur W. 2012. Comparative studies on the structure and development of the venom-delivery system of centipedes, and a hypothesis on the origin of this evolutionary novelty. Evolution & Development 14: 128-137.

Edgecombe GD, Giribet G. 2004. Adding mitochondrial sequence data (16S rRNA and cytochrome c oxidase subunit I) to the phylogeny of centipedes (Myriapoda: Chilopoda): an analysis of morphology and four molecular loci. Journal of Zoological Systematics and Evolutionary Research 42: 89-134.

Edgecombe GD, Giribet G. 2007. Evolutionary biology of centipedes (Myriapoda: Chilopoda). Annual Review of Entomology 52: 151-170.

Foddai D, Bonato L, Pereira LA, Minelli A. 2003. Phylogeny and systematics of the Arrupinae (Chilopoda Geophilomorpha Mecistocephalidae) with the description of a new dwarfed species. Journal of Natural History 37: 1247-1267.

Foddai D, Pereira LA, Minelli A. 2000. A catalogue of the geophilomorph centipedes (Chilopoda) from Central and South America including Mexico. Amazoniana 16: 59-185.

Hanken J, Wake DB. 1993. Miniaturization of body size: organismal consequences and evolutionary significance. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 24: 501-519.

Hoffman RL, Pereira LA. 1991. Systematics and biogeography of Marsikomerus Attems, 1938, a misunderstood genus of centipedes (Geophilomorpha: Schendylidae). Insecta Mundi 5: 45-60.

Jones RE. 1996. A new genus of centipede, Australoschendyla (Chilopoda: Geophilomorpha: Schendylidae), from Western Australia. Records of the Western Australian Museum 17: 411-415.

Koch M, Edgecombe GD. 2012. The preoral chamber in geophilomorph centipedes: comparative morphology, phylogeny, and the evolution of centipede feeding structures. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 165: 1-62.

Kronmüller C. 2013. Hundertfüßer: Lebensweise, Haltung, Nachzucht. Münster: Natur und Tier-Verlag.

Lewis JGE. 2002. The scolopendromorph centipedes of Mauritius and Rodrigues and their adjacent islets (Chilopoda: Scolopendromorpha). Journal of Natural History 36: 79-106.

Maruzzo D, Bonato L. 2014. Morphology and diversity of the forcipules in Strigamia centipedes (Chilopoda, Geophilomorpha). Arthropod Structure & Development 43: 17-25.

Minelli A, Bortoletto S. 1988. Myriapod metamerism and arthropod segmentation. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 33: 323-343.

Minelli A, Sombke A. 2011. Chilopoda – Development. Pp. 295-308 in: Minelli A, ed, Treatise on Zoology – The Myriapoda, Volume 1. Leiden: Brill.

Moretto M, Minelli A, Fusco G. 2015. Cell size versus body size in geophilomorph centipedes. The Science of Nature 102: 16.

Murienne J, Edgecombe GD, Giribet G. 2010. Including secondary structure, fossils and molecular dating in the centipede tree of life. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 57: 301-313.

Pereira LA. 1984. Estudios sobre geofilomorfos neotropicales. X. Contribución al conocimiento del género Dinogeophilus Silvestri, 1909 (Chilopoda: Geophilomorpha: Geophilidae). Bollettino del Laboratorio di Entomologia Agraria “Filippo Silvestri” 41: 119-138.

Pereira LA. 2000. The preparation of centipedes for microscopical examination with particular reference to the Geophilomorpha. Bulletin of the British Myriapod Group 16: 22-25.

Pereira LA. 2012. A new dwarf species, new distribution records, and supplementary descriptive notes of the centipede genus Ityphilus Cook, 1899 (Chilopoda: Geophilomorpha: Ballophilidae) from central Amazonia, Brazil. Papéis Avulsos de Zoologia 52: 291-309.

Pereira LA. 2013a. Discovery of a second geophilomorph species (Myriapoda: Chilopoda) having twenty-seven leg-bearing segments, the lowest number recorded up to the present in the centipede order Geophilomorpha. Papéis Avulsos de Zoologia 53: 163‑185.

Pereira LA. 2013b. Further contribution to the knowledge of Ityphilus calinus Chamberlin, 1957, a poorly known ballophilid centipede from Colombia, with description of Ityphilus bonatoi, a new diminutive geophilomorph species from Brazil (Myriapoda: Chilopoda, Geophilomorpha). Zootaxa 3716: 501-527.

Pereira LA, Foddai D, Minelli A. 1997. Zoogeographical aspects of Neotropical Geophilomorpha. Entomologica Scandinavica 51 (suppl.): 77-86.

Pereira LA, Minelli A. 1996. Ityphilus krausi n. sp., a new ballophilid centipede from Peru (Chilopoda: Geophilomorpha: Balllophilidae). Studies on Neotropical Fauna and Environment 31: 102-111.

Pereira LA, Minelli A, Barbieri F. 1994. New and little known geophilomorph centipedes from Amazonian inundation forests near Manaus, Brazil (Chilopoda: Geophilomorpha). Amazoniana 13: 163-204.

Polilov AA. 2015. Small is beautiful: features of the smallest insects and limits to miniaturization. Annual Review of Entomology 60: 103-121.

Ribaut H. 1914. Myriapodes. I. Chilopoda. Pp. 3-35 in: Voyage de Ch. Alluaud et R. Jeannel en Afrique Orientale (1911-1912), Résultats Scientifiques. Paris: Libr. A. Schulz.

Ribaut H. 1923. Chilopodes de la Nouvelle-Calédonie et des Îles Loyalty. Pp 1-79 in: Sarasin F, Roux J, eds, Nova Caledonia, Recherches Scientifiques en Nouvelle-Calédonie et aux Îles Loyalty, 3(1). Berlin-Wiesbaden: Kreidel.

Rundell RJ, Leander BS. 2010. Masters of miniaturization: convergent evolution among interstitial eukaryotes. Bioessays 32: 430-437.

Shear WA, Peck SB. 1992. Centipeds (Chilopoda) and Symphyla of the Galapagos Islands, Ecuador. Canadian Journal of Zoology 70: 2260-2274.

Shelley RM, Kiser SB 2000. Neotype designation and a diagnostic account for the centipede, Scolopendra gigantea L., 1758, with an account of S. galapagoensis Bollman, 1889 (Chilopoda Scolopendromorpha Scolopendridae). Tropical Zoology 13: 159-170.

Shinohara K. 1970. Taxonomical and morphological studies of Myriapoda. 9. A new genus of geophilid centiped from Japan. Zoological Magazine 79: 53-55.

Silvestri F. 1909a. Descrizioni preliminari di vari artropodi specialmente d’America. Rendiconti della Regia Accademia dei Lincei, Classe di Scienze Fisiche Matematiche e Naturali 18: 267-271.

Silvestri F. 1909b. Contribuzioni alla conoscenza dei chilopodi III-IV. Descrizione di alcuni generi e specie di Henicopidae e descrizione di alcuni generi e specie di Geophilomorpha. Bollettino del Laboratorio di Zoologia Generale e Agraria della Regia Scuola Superiore d’Agricoltura 4: 38-65.

Tamura K, Stecher G, Peterson D, Filipski A, Kumar S. 2013. MEGA6: Molecular Evolutionary Genetics Analysis version 6.0. Molecular Biology and Evolution 30: 2725-2729.

Turcato A, Fusco G, Minelli A. 1995. The sternal pore areas of geophilomorph centipedes (Chilopoda Geophilomorpha). Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 115: 185-209.

Turk FA. 1955. The chilopods of Peru with descriptions of new species and some zoogeographical notes on the Peruvian chilopod fauna. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 125: 469-504.

Verhoeff KW. 1925. Chilopoda. In: Bronn’s Klassen und Ordnungen des Tierreichs. Leipzig: Winter, 5(2): 725 pp.

Wilson JJ, Rougerie R, Schonfeld J, Janzen DH, Hallwachs W, Hajibabaei M, Kitching IJ, Haxaire J, Hebert PDN. 2011. When species matches are unavailable are DNA barcodes correctly assigned to higher taxa? An assessment using sphingid moths. BMC Ecology 11: 18.

Attems C. 1907. Javanische Myriopoden gesammelt von Direktor K. Kraepelin im Jahre 1903. Jahrbuch der Hamburgischen wissenschaftlichen Anstalten 24: 77-142.

Attems C. 1938. Die von Dr. C. Dawydoff in Französisch Indochina gesammelten Myriopoden. Mémoires du Muséum d’Histoire Naturelle, Paris N.S. 6: 187-353.

Bonato L, Minelli A. 2014. Chilopoda Geophilomorpha of Europe: a revised list of species, with taxonomic and nomenclatorial notes. Zootaxa 3770: 1-136

Chagas Junior A, Shelley RM. 2003. The centipede genus Newportia Gervais, 1847, in Mexico: description of a new troglomorphic species; redescription of N. sabina Chamberlin, 1942; revival of N. azteca Humbert & Saussure, 1869; and a summary of the fauna (Scolopendromorpha: Scolopocryptopidae: Newportiinae). Zootaxa 379: 1-20.

Chamberlin RV. 1912. Notes on Geophiloidea from Iowa and some neighbouring states. Canadian Entomologist 44: 65-72.

Chamberlin RV. 1913. Notes on Chilopoda from the Galapagos islands. Entomological News 24: 121-123.

Chamberlin RV. 1914. The Stanford Expedition to Brazil 1911 John C. Branner Director. The Chilopoda of Brazil. Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative Zoology, Harvard College 58: 151-221.

Chamberlin RV. 1915. New chilopods from Mexico and the West Indies. Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative Zoology, Harvard College 59: 493-541.

Chamberlin RV. 1920a. The Myriopoda of the Australian region. Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative Zoology, Harvard College 64: 1-269.

Chamberlin RV. 1920b. Two new schendyloid chilopods from Guatemala. Psyche 27: 63-66.

Chamberlin RV. 1922. The centipeds of Central America. Proceedings of the United States National Museum 60: 1-17.

Chamberlin RV. 1930. On some chilopod immigrants at the Hawaii. Pan-Pacific Entomologist 7: 65-69.

Chamberlin RV. 1939. Four new centipeds of the genus Cryptops. Pan-Pacific Entomologist 15: 63-65.

Chamberlin RV. 1940. On some chilopods from Barro Colorado Island. Psyche 47: 66-74.

Chamberlin RV. 1941. Three new centipeds of the genus Cryptops. Journal of Entomology and Zoology 33: 41-42.

Chamberlin RV. 1943. On Mexican centipeds. Bulletin of the University of Utah, Biological Series 7: 1-55.

Chamberlin RV. 1944. Some chilopods from the Indo-Australian archipelago. Notulae Naturae 147: 1-14.

Chamberlin RV. 1945. Two new centipeds from Trinidad. Entomological News 56: 171-174.

Chamberlin RV. 1951. On Chilopoda collected in North-East Angola by Dr. A. de Barros Machado. Publicações Culturais da Companhia de Diamantes de Angola 10(3): 97-111.

Chamberlin RV. 1957. Scolopendrid chilopods of the Northern Andes region taken on the California Academy South America Expedition of 1954-1955. Great Basin Naturalist 17: 30-41.

Crabill RE. 1960. Centipedes of the Smithsonian-Bredin Expeditions to the West Indies. Proceedings of the United States National Museum 111: 167-195.

Crabill RE. 1964. On the true nature of Schizotaenia with notes on contingent matters (Chilopoda: Geophilomorpha: Chilenophilidae). Entomological News 75: 33-42.

Crabill RE. 1977. A new cryptopid genus with key to the genera known to occur in North America including Mexico (Chilopoda: Scolopendromorpha: Cryptopidae). Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington 79: 346-349.

Dobroruka LJ. 1959. Mesoschendyla franzi nov. spec. eine neue Chilopoden-Art aus dem Tschadgebiet. Annalen des naturhistorischen Museums, Wien 63: 414-415.

Foddai D, Minelli A. 1999. A troglomorphic geophilomorph centipede from Southern France (Chilopoda: Geophilomorpha: Geophilidae). Journal of Natural History 33: 267-287.

Folkmanova B, Dobroruka LJ. 1960. Beitrag zur Kenntnis der Chilopoda der U.d.S.S.R. Zoologichesckii Zhurnal 39: 1811-1818.

Lewis JGE. 1967. The scolopendromorph centipedes of the Sudan with remarks on taxonomic characters in the Scolopendridae. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of London 178: 185-207.

Lewis JGE. 2011a. Redescription and validity of Cryptops nanus Attems, 1938 from Hawaii (Chilopoda: Scolopendromorpha). Annalen des naturhistorischen Museums in Wien B 112: 133-136.

Lewis JGE. 2011b. A review of the species in the genus Cryptops Leach, 1815 from the Old World related to Cryptops (Cryptops) hortensis (Donovan, 1810) (Chilopoda, Scolopendromorpha). International Journal of Myriapodology 4: 11-50.

Lewis JGE. 2013. A review of the species in the genus Cryptops Leach, 1815 from the Old World and the Australasian region related to Cryptops (Cryptops) doriae Pocock, 1891 (Chilopoda: Scolopendromorpha: Cryptopidae). Zootaxa 3683: 1-34.

Machado A. 1951. Novos dados sobre os quilópodes de Angola (Colheitas de A. de Barros Machado 1949). Publicações Culturais da Companhia de Diamantes de Angola 11: 49-74.

Matic Z, Negrea SG, Fundora Martinez C. 1977. Recherches sur les Chilopodes hypogés de Cuba. Pp. 277-301 in: Résultats des expéditions biospéléologiques Cubano-Roumaines à Cuba. II. Bucuresti: Academiei Republicii Socialiste Romania.

Meinert F. 1870. Myriapoda Musaei Hauniensis. Bitrag til myriapodernes morphologi og systematik. I. Geophile. Naturhistorisk Tidsskrift 7: 1-128.

Minelli A. 1983. On Sardinian centipedes (Chilopoda). Bollettino di Zoologia 49 (1982): 1-16.

Pereira LA. 2014. First report of geophilid centipedes of the genus Ribautia (Myriapoda: Chilopoda: Geophilomorpha) from the Atlantic Forest biome, with description of a new miniature species from Misiones Province, Northeastern Argentina. Zootaxa 3779: 433-455.

Pereira LA, Foddai D, Minelli A. 2000. New taxa of neotropical Geophilomorpha (Chilopoda). Amazoniana 16: 1-57.

Pereira LA, Minelli A. 1993. On two species of Schendylurus Silvestri 1907 from Venezuela with redesciption of S. colombianus Chamberlin 1921 and S. virgingordae Crabill 1960 (Chilopoda Geophilomorpha Scendylidae). Tropical Zoology 1: 105-123.

Pereira LA, Uliana M, Minelli A. 2006. New species and new records of the genus Ribautia Brölemann, 1909 (Chilopoda: Geophilomorpha: Geophilidae) from South America. Zootaxa 1106: 45-68.

Ribaut H. 1915. Biospeologica XXXVI. Notostigmophora, Scolopendromorpha, Geophilomorpha. Archives de Zoologie Expérimentale et Générale 55: 323-346.

Schileyko AA. 2009. Ectonocryptoides sandrops - a new scolopendromorph centipede from Belize. Soil Organisms 81: 519-530.

Schubart O. 1938. Über einige Myriapoden aus den Höhlen des Belgischen Congo. Bulletin du Musée Royal d’Histoire Naturelle de Belgique 14: 1-16.

Shelley RM, Mercurio R. 2008. Redescription and illustrations of the centipede, Ectonocryptops kraepelini Crabill, 1977 (Scolopendromorpha: Scolopocryptopidae: Ectonocryptopinae). Zootaxa 1824: 65-68.

Silvestri F. 1898. Nova Geophiloidea Argentina. Comunicaciones del Museo Nacional de Buenos Aires 1: 39-40.

Silvestri F. 1905. Fauna Chilensis. Myriapoda. Zoologische Jahrbücher, Abteilung für Systematik (Suppl.) 6: 715-772.

Verhoeff KW. 1928. Geophilomorphen-Beiträge und eine Lithobius-Form. Mitteilungen aus dem Zoologischen Museum in Berlin 14: 229-286.

Verhoeff KW. 1943 Neuer Beitrag zur Kenntnis der Chilopoden der Insel Ischia. Zoologischer Anzeiger 142: 62-83.

Zapparoli M. 2011. New records and remarks on the centipede fauna of endogean habitats of Sardinia (Chilopoda). Pp. 223-242 in: Nardi G, Whitmore D, Bardiani M, Birtele D, Mason F, Spada L, Cerretti P, eds, Biodiversity of Marganai and Montimannu (Sardinia). Research in the framework of the ICP Forests network. Conservazione Habitat Invertebrati 5. Sommacampagna: Cierre.